(c)1996, 1999 Wilf Backhaus, All Rights Reserved.


The original Middle Sea (1979, FGU) was a simultaneous area movement game using counters and cards. The combat system was somewhat awkward, these Variant Rules are designed to correct this problem. The rules rely on the original Middle Sea rules for the Build, Taxes and Trade rules. The Victory Conditions are the same as the original Middle Sea..

Basic Scenario: Each player in turn selects a home province with a walled town. Then each player selects in turn two provinces adjacent to the home province. Each player receives the counters and cards of the provinces and walled town. Each player also receives 5 INF armies and three GALLEYS with a Flagship.

Special Selection Rules:

(1) Players who take Lombardy as the home or second province automatically receive the Emperor and Germany as their second or third choice.

(2) Bulgaria counts as two choices and is always available as a second choice to any player.

(3) Rome counts as two choices and is always available as the second choice of any player other than the Emperor. If Rome is taken as the first choice, Germany is not available and Lombardy is played merely as Lombardy.


In Variant Middle Sea movement is no longer simultaneous so written orders are dispensed with. The players either roll dice each season during the year or draw numbered chits from a cup to determine the order of play each turn. Players could also keep the first season order of play for the whole year if they so wished or simply roll dice in the first season of the game with the highest going first and the rest playing in a clockwise sequence for the rest of the game.

(1) Recruiting spies

(2) Devastation

(3) Loading armies on ships

(4) Sea move/Combat/Raids

(5) Land Move/Debarkation

(6) Battles and Retreats

(7) Assaults and Blockades.

(8) Spy Activity.


Bulgaria: Only Bulgarian Leader may enter this province. If the Leader killed or captured the province remains loyal to the owning player and a new leader arises at the end of the year to take the place of the killed or captured one. The Bulgarian never has to pay maintenance for troops directly under the Bulgar Leader or for troops in a walled town or keep in Bulgaria. In Land Combat the Bulgar has both +3 ATT/DEF. It is recommended that the BULGAR be played only if there are more than three players.

Germany: The Emperor does not need to pay maintenance for any INF directly controlled by the Emperor.

Rome: If Rome is neutral at the start of the game, then the pope does not play any more role than on the card of the papal states. If Rome is chosen as a home province, then the Pope receives 70 marks extra revenue as Peter's Pence from the Christian States and 5 free spy rings every turn. If Rome is chosen as a second or third province the player gets 3 free spy rings every turn. If Rome is taken by another player, the Pope goes into exile in some other friendly Christian State.

The Papal player will continue to get the Spy Rings and Peter's Pence. Conquerors of Rome must continue to occupy it with troops under a leader or a keep.

Venice: The Leader of Venice is a +3 ATT/DEF Admiral applies only to one Fleet and only to GALLEYS. Venice pays no maintenance for Galleys. The Walled Town of Venice can only be captured by way of a Blockade. If the Walled Town of Venice is not captured, the province can only be held by troops actually occupying it.

Tripoli: The Leader of Tripoli is a +2 ATT/DEF Admiral. Tripoli may raid with 1 Galley Fleets.


Combat in Variant Middle Sea takes place when opposing forces occupy the same Province or sea zone at the same time. Roll a six sided die for each unit present in the zone and modify the rolls by whatever Leadership or Fort bonus applies. Attack and defence rolls are considered to take place at the same time so losses are removed only after the Defence roll. The moving Player is the Attacker in all cases.




ATTACK IN FIELD: Every 6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE IN FIELD: Every 5,6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE IN FORTS: Every 4,5,6 Kills an enemy unit


ATTACK IN FIELD: Every 5,6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE IN FIELD: Every 5,6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE IN FORTS: Every 5,6 Kills an enemy unit



ATTACK At SEA: Every 5,6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE At Sea: Every 6 kills an enemy unit

MANNED WITH TROOPS: +1 to die roll result


ATTACK At SEA: Every 6 kills an enemy unit

DEFENCE At Sea: Every 6 kills an enemy unit

MANNED WITH TROOPS: +1 to die roll result


Leaders Modify the Die Roll of troops they are with. If differently ranked leaders are with the same unit, then the owning player must decide which leader will benefit which attacking or defending group. The Leadership bonus extends only as far as the Command Range of the Leader.

The 'x' Leader adds to ATT=+2/DEF=0

The 'xx' Leader adds to ATT= 0/DEF=+1

The 'xxx' Leader adds to ATT= 0/DEF=+2

The 'xxxx' Leader adds to ATT= 0 DEF=+3


Spies which survive a Spy War may attempt to kill an enemy leader. The Spy Ring pays 10 mk per die rolled with each 6 result being a kill. The Spy can pay an extra 10 mk for a +1 modification on one die roll. The target gets a chance to neutralize the Spy Ring by paying 20 mk for each -1 modification of the Spy Ring Rolls. If the Spy Ring is successful, the result is as though the Leader was killed in battle.