Alan R. Arvold


   The following rules include all rules errata and

clarifications that were published in the GENERAL Vol.30-6 and

the BOARDGAMER Vol.5-1 (some of which have changed since their

publication). These rules also answer the rules questions that

have been posted on Consimworld over the last few years. They

also include the optional rules from the above mentioned issue of



   These rules will include Rule Sections 1 through 11 in the

Rulebook. The original Rule Sections 12 (Glossary) and 13

(Historical Backround) will not be included as they are not in

need of correction. Instead, in their place, will be the Optional

Rules and the Game Errata.





   Geronimo! is a game for one to five players covering the last

great period of western expansion of the United States: the

Indian wars that occurred between 1850 and 1890. While the

subject matter is serious, and often tragic, this IS a game ...

and, as such, has been designed to give all players an enjoyable

competitive experience while portraying the fate of the American

Indians during this period.


   The "Basic" Game allows the players to concentrate on the main

years of the wars, 1866-1885, while the Campaign Game covers the

entire era, 1850-1890.


   BEGINNING SIMULATION GAMERS: Looks like a lot of rules, huh?

   Although we have pared the complexity to a minimum, one of

   your main problems will be that gaming "language" may be

   unfamiliar, and much of the "complexity" stems from that lack

   of familiarity.


      * First, look over the components to get a feel for the


      * Then read the rules to see where everything is.

      * Set up the game and run a sample Turn with the rules

        nearby to answer and questions that occur.


   Then you'll be as ready to jump in and go as anyone.


   Because Geronimo! is a mirror into the past, we have used

words and terms that were in effect at the time for the sake of

being colorful at the expense of being politically correct. We

extend our apologies to any Native Americans who may be offended

by our portrayal of the events of the period.


   The rules are liberally spiced with historical references

which have no bearing on play other than to put them in context

with the simulation. Such notes will be printed in italics. These

sections can be skipped when referencing a particular rule as

they have no direct relationship to play.


   To aid quick reference, all important terms and abbreviations

have been Capitalized throughout the rules. Any Capitalized them

is defined in the glossary and/or referenced in specific rule






The game includes the following components:


    * One 24" x 22" mounted mapboard

    * Three sheets of markers

    * One deck of 32 Tribal Cards

    * One deck of 49 Shaman Cards

    * Two Player Reference Cards

    * One rulebook

    * One ten-sided die


   Players will also need a few opaque cups from which to draw

necessary Commanders, Mines, etc. The back page contains a Tally

Sheet for recording game information. You will need to copy one

of these for each player to use during the game.


2.1 THE MAP: The mapboard depicts the western half of the United

States. We have divided it into Areas represented by States as

they now exist. Texas and California are already States when the

game begins. All other playable Areas begin the Campaign Games as



2.11 PLAINS/MOUNTAINS: For "play" purposes, the map is divided

into two sections by the solid "green" line. Plains Areas are

east of the line, and Mountain Areas are west of it. Some Areas

also have a Buffalo icon indicating they are part of the range of

the great American Bison herds.


2.12 AREA VALUES: Each Area has two numbers printed below its

name. The number on the left represents Survival. It is used by

Indian players to determine if their Tribes have survived that

Turn, after being reduced by any Resource presence therein (6.6).


   The number on the right represents Statehood. This is the

number of non-broken Resource Points the US must exceed in that

Territory to be eligible for Statehood (10.2). This number is

also used for State Maintenance (10.3) once statehood is

achieved. The Texas and California Statehood numbers are

asterisked [*] to indicate they start the game as States.


2.2 THE CARDS: There are two decks of cards with varying

functions. Each deck should be shuffled and placed in separate



2.21 TRIBAL DECK: These 32 cards represent the 28 Tribes in the

game and are used to decide which Tribes are Active in any given

turn. There are four extra cards for special "Reservation" use by

Tribes with more than one Village (8.18).


   There were more than 28 Tribes in 1850. We chose these 28 as

the most representative of the era.


   Each Tribal Card contains an illustration of a typical or

famous warrior and the following information:

A. NAME: All tribal names used are those familiar to the general


Example: The term "Ned Perce" is a French phrase meaning "pierced

nose", a cosmetic disfiguration which only some of the Ned Perce

had. Among themselves, they were known as the Nimipu.

B. NUMBER OF VILLAGES IN PLAY: Tribes with more than one

"Village" have ratings for each Village listed in separate

columns. The Sioux have three Villages; the Apache and Cheyenne

two, while the rest have one.

C. INITIAL AREA LOCATION: This is the starting location of each

Village. Tribes may change locations during play.

D. SIZE: This is a number of Battle Points (hereafter referred to

as BP's) abstractly representing the number of braves a Tribe can

send into battle. This number may be reduced by combat or

Survival problems; it may never be increased or rebuilt. Tribes

that are reduced to "0" are considered Extinct and out of play.

E. BATTLE: A "+", a "-", or a "0". This is a Die Roll Modifier

(hereafter referred to as a DRM) used for War Party die rolls in

combat with other Tribes, or when defending against (but not

attacking) Columns. For example, the Apache may always add +2 to

their die roll when attacking another Tribe or defending against

the US.

F. GUERILLA CAPABILITY: A Tribe with a "G" designation in its

Evasion rating may add one (+1) to its Evasion Capability if

attacked by US in a Mountain Area.

G. EVASION: A numerical rating reflecting a Tribe's ability to

evade attacks by Columns. The higher the rating, the better they

evade. The rating never changes, although it may be increased by

the rating of a Chief or the addition of Guerilla capability (G).

H. AGGRESSION: A numerical rating reflecting the likelihood of

that Tribe's involvement in a Massacre. This rating may also be

increased by the Aggression rating of a chief leading the War

Party (6.52).

I. SURVIVAL: If the number of Survival Points (hereafter referred

to as SPs) an occupying Tribe gets from an Area drops below this

number, it loses one BP (6.65).

J. FRIENDS/ENEMIES: Historical tribal enemies and/or friends are

listed for each Tribe. Such a listing affects a Tribe's ability

to send War Parties against the Tribes listed as "Enemy", or to

combine with those listed as "Friends" against the US. Although

the Apache (actually only some of the Apache) were friendly with

the Utes and Yavapai, everybody else considers the Apache as

enemies and vice versa.

K. CHIEFS: The names of the Chiefs (if any) available to lead

that Tribe, and the Turns in which they are available (6.51).

L. NOTES: Any special capabilities a tribe has are listed here:

(Scouts, 9.2Y; Raiders, 6.41; Mexico Raiders, 6.43; Poison

Arrows, 7.31).


2.22 ON RESERVATION: These four cards are used only when one of

the Villages of the three multi-Villaged Tribes goes On

Reservation (8.18). Remove them from the Tribal Deck and set them

aside until needed.


2.23 SHAMAN CARDS: These 49 cards define the length of the Card

Play Phase (9.15), while adding a variety of "random" events that

may affect play. Use of these cards (in terms of when or how

they're played, or how to avoid playing them) is a big part of

the strategy.


2.3 MARKERS: The markers allow the players to indicate what they

are doing during the game.

VILLAGES: These triangular markers are used to mark the location

of each tribal Village on the map. The back of the marker is

placed face-up when that Tribe is both activated and "Finished"

for the Turn.

WAR PARTIES: These markers, one for each Village, are used to

mark the location of an active War Party on the map. They contain

the "military" information for that Tribe.

CHIEFS: These markers represent the various tribal "chiefs"

available to lead their respective Tribes. The reverse side lists

the Turns in which that chief is available for play.

COMMANDERS: These markers represent the men who led the US troops

throughout the Indian Wars.

ARTILLERY: Field guns and Gatling guns increased the combat

strength of Columns while decreasing their mobility.

SETTLEMENTS/TOWNS: The circular markers represent population

growth. The front of each marker is a Settlement; the reverse

side is a Town. The numbers refer to their respective value in

Resource Points.

MINES: The rectangular markers represent the major Gold and

Silver "strikes" during this period. The reverse of each marker

shows its "Hit" side which is placed face-up for the duration of

the Turn after being successfully attacked (7.26). Mines

described as "Lodes" are never removed once put into play.

RAIL: These markers represent the presence and build-up of

railways in an Area. The reverse side is placed face-up for the

balance of the Turn to show its "Broke" status after it has been

successfully attacked (7.24).

MISSION: These three markers represent evangelical missionaries.

The reverse side lists some pertinent rule prompts (9.2N).

SHAMAN CARD MARKERS: The following markers are used only to

record play information. At the end of each Turn, all Yellow

markers are removed from the mapboard and all orange markers are

flipped to the front side.

Bad Weather - 9.2E

Blood Lust - 9.2F

Buffalo - 9.2G

Good Weather - 9.2L

Mormons - 9.2O

Peace Chief - 9.2Q

Scouts - 9.2Y

MASSACRE/DEVASTATED: The Massacre marker records a Massacre in

its Area during the current Turn (7.6). The '-1' refers to the

loss of the Resource Points it causes when determining Statehood

(10.21) or State Maintenance. The reverse side shows the number

of SPs lost by a Village as a result of a Column attack (7.41).

BPs: These are the numbered markers used to record Column and

tribal strength.

COLUMN PLAYED: These markers record those Columns which operated

in the previous Round (5.33). The red markers are placed in odd-

numbered rounds and removed at the end of even-numbered rounds.

The blue markers are placed in even-numbered rounds and removed

at the end of odd-numbered rounds.

STATEHOOD: These markers are placed in those Territories which

have become States (10.2).


2.4 THE DICE: The "0" is read as zero, not as a '10'. A Natural

DR refers to a die roll before any modification. All losses

requiring "halving" are rounded down; e.g. half of three is one.


2.5 SCALE: Each Turn represents five years. This time scale is

used because the "Indian Wars" were really a series of local,

individual conflicts that rarely lasted more than a year or two,

followed by several years of relative peace. Army BPs represent

several companies per BP. Individual companies were sometimes

spread all over the countryside. Approximately 430 companies was

the maximum "troop level" achieved during this period, but this

number should not be taken literally. As the war proceeded, the

US Army found it better to operate in large "columns", rather

than in small, dispersed groups. Tribal "strengths" are based on

a combination of population, warlike attitude, history of

conflict, etc. It was unusual for any Tribe to muster more than

1,000 braves at any one time. The usual War Party consisted of

200-300 fighting men. It's all rather ephemeral, and some

"strength" decisions were made, obviously, with game balance in

mind. The key concept was "relative effectiveness", and these

numerical strengths must be read along with Battle and Survival






3.1 OVERVIEW: Because of the Randomized Play System (3.3) each

player will probably have different goals each Turn. Basically,

each player is trying to amass the most Victory Points possible

in each Turn, regardless of the side he is presently playing.


   The US player is trying to expand his presence in each

Territory in order to turn them into States, thereby gaining

Victory Points (hereafter referred to as VPs). He attains

statehood by placing enough Resources in a Territory to exceed

that Area's Statehood Level. He also has to keep all of this safe

from Indian-led depravations which may reduce his "presence" in

an Area.


   The Indians are trying to maintain their life styles in the

face of growing US expansion. They try to slow US expansion --

and gain "Coup" Points, the Indian version of VPs -- by attacking

Resources and, when necessary, US troops. Some Tribes also attack

their traditional Indian enemies to gain Coup Points.


   The player with the most VPs at the end of the game

(regardless of what "sides" he has played during the game) wins.


   In "Real Life", the final outcome was almost certain. We have

assumed that, and made an effort to avoid the "can the Indians

win?" syndrome. They can't... at least not in the sense that they

will retain control of the West.


3.2 NUMBER OF PLAYERS: The game was designed for three to five

players. It is playable by two, but, much of the interaction is

missing. It may also be played solitaire, but the focus of the

game then shifts away from VPs and it is won or lost solely by

attaining Statehood.


   There is always only one US player. All other players are

Indians. However the number of active Tribes in play remains the

same, regardless of the number of players.


3.3 SIDE/TRIBE SELECTION: Players change "sides", randomly, every

Turn. No player is ever assured of having the same Tribes -- or

being the US -- in any given future Turn. When playing the Basic

Game, no player may play the US side in the current Turn if he

played the US side in the previous Turn. In the full, 8 turn,

Campaign Game, no player may play the US side in the current Turn

if he played the US side in the two previous consecutive Turns.


3.31 SIDE DETERMINATION: In the Player Determination Phase of

each Turn, place red Indian markers equal to the number of Indian

players, plus the blue US marker, in an opaque cup. Each player

draws one marker from the cup to determine which side to play

that Turn. To avoid any problems that could be brought on by Rule

3.3, it is suggested that the player who played the US side in

the previous Turn the Basic Game, or played the US side in the

two previous consecutive Turns in the Campaign Game, be excluded

from the drawing in the current Turn and be given the Indian side

automatically. Remove one red Indian marker from the cup and

proceed with the drawing with the other players. Note that this

will occur on Turns 5, 6, and 7 in the Basic Game and can occur

0-3 times during the Campaign Game, depending on how the drawings

have gone on in that game.


3.32 INITIAL TRIBE SELECTION: To start the game, the Indian

players each roll a die. The high roller chooses a Tribe he

wishes to play that Turn. That Tribe is his Initial Tribe. If he

chooses either the Sioux or the Apache, he may select only one

Tribe. Otherwise, he may choose any two Tribes. After his

selection, the next Indian player in clockwise direction around

the table makes his selection from among the remaining Tribes,

and so on until all Indian players have selected their Initial



   After the first Turn, the Initial Tribe selection is made by

the Indian player with the least accumulated VPs, followed by the

Indian player with the next highest accumulated VPs, and so on.

VPs ties are resolved by rolling the die.


   Aside from being a game-play mechanic to increase tension and

enjoyment, Randomized Play also simulates the US change in

"political" fortunes -- new President, new policies, etc. For the

Indian players, it represents the ever-changing viewpoints of the

Tribes in their dealings with the encroachments of the whites.


3.4 BASIC GAME SETUP: The Basic Game portrays the 20 years after

the Civil War, wherein the United States systematically "tamed"

the West.


3.41 LENGTH: The game starts on Turn 4 and ends after Turn 7.


3.42 SHAMAN DECK ADJUSTMENT: Remove the "American Civil War",

"Mormons", and "Telegraph" cards from the Shaman Deck. The

Telegraph card should remain in view as reminder that its effects

are already in play.


3.43 STATEHOOD: The following Territories are already States:

Minnesota, Kansas, Nevada, and Oregon (in addition to Texas and

California). Place their "State" markers in those areas.


3.44 RESOURCES: Place Towns, Settlements, Mines, and RRs as



Area:         Towns:      Settlements:    Mines*:      RRs:

Arizona         0              1

California      2              4          both 4's      1

Colorado        0              3

Kansas          1              2                        1

Minnesota       2              0

Nebraska        0              5

Nevada          0              3          three 3's

New Mexico      0              3

Oregon          1              3            one

Texas           1              1

Utah            0              3

Washington      1              0


   *Draw two additional Mines and place them in Area(s) indicated

on the markers drawn. Do not accompany them with additional

settlements as you would if placing them normally (5.23).


3.45 TROOPS: The US starts Turn 4 with 30 BPs and two Field

Artillery markers before getting his Commanders, additional BPs,

and new artillery for Turn 4. He places them on the map in Column

format (5.31) although no Commanders are (yet) present.


   When rolling for additional BPs, use the post-ACW "six Dice

roll" method (4.23).


3.46 INDIAN STRENGTH: The Indian players start the game with ten

Tribes On Reservation and reduced to the number of BPs listed in



   * Flathead (3)        * Rogues (1)

   * Shoshone (2)        * Klamath (2)

   * Mojave (1)          * Couer d'Alene (2)

   * Umatilla (1)        * Miwok-Yokuts (1)

   * Yakima (3)          * Santee Sioux Village (5)


   These starting strengths are printed above the On Reservation

box and on the 'Finished' side of the Village markers. Place the

cards for these Tribes in the "On Reservation" box, with their

Village markers (together with appropriate BPs) off to the side.

Use one of the special "On Reservation" cards for the Santee



   The following ten Tribes remain in their initial starting

Areas but have their BP levels reduced to the totals listed in



   * Navajo (2)          * Teton Sioux (9) and (9)

   * Arapaho (9)         * Blackfoot (3)

   * Kiowa (7)           * Mimbres and Chiricahua Apache (6 each)

   * Snake (3)           * Southern Cheyenne (5)

   * Comanche (10)       * Northern Cheyenne (5)


   The remaining Tribes remain in their initial starting

locations with their original BP strength. Starting strengths of

all Villages for the Basic Game are listed on the "Finished"

(reverse) side of the Village markers.


3.47 BUFFALO: Make a DR for each Buffalo Area. If you roll:


   * a 0, place two Buffalo Skull markers there.

   * a 1-4, place one Buffalo Skull marker there.

   * a 5-9, nothing is placed.


3.48 MISCELLANEOUS: There are no Missions. No Tribes have been

relocated. Those On Reservation who leave will return to their

printed initial starting Area. No Chiefs are In Prison.


3.5 CARD DISTRIBUTION: The following is done at the start of each



A. The Indian players choose their Initial Tribes (3.32).


B. Depending on the number of Indian players, deal out a number

of additional Tribal cards so that the total Tribal cards in play

for each player at the start of the Turn [including their Initial

Tribe(s)] are:


   * one Indian = 18 Tribal cards

   * two Indians = 9 Tribal cards each

   * three Indians = 6 Tribal cards each

   * four Indians = 5 Tribal cards each


Players do not have to reveal their Tribes until activated.


Example: With four Indian players, if one has two Tribes as his

Initial Tribe, he gets three more Tribal cards.


C. At the beginning of each Turn the US gets:


   * the number of Commanders listed on the Turn Track

   * more BPs equal to the roll of six dice

   * two Artillery markers


D. The Shaman Cards are now dealt to each player as follows:


   * if two players, 15 cards each

   * if three players, seven cards each

   * if four players, five cards each

   * if five players, four cards each


   The number of Shaman Cards available is predicated on the

number of possible "operations" that may occur in a Turn for

either the US or all of the Indians, which will vary from 14-16.


Place the Chief markers aside where players can reach them as

needed. Those used in a Turn may be placed with their Villages.

Chiefs are not drawn randomly, they are used when available and

as needed (6.5).





4.1 SEQUENCE OF PLAY: The Sequence of Play is the order in which

players do things. Each Turn has the following phases:


A. PLAYER/SIDE DETERMINATION PHASE: Players determine who they

will play this Turn (3.31).




   * Shuffle both decks

   * US takes new BPs and Artillery

   * US randomly draws Commanders, randomly assigning them as

     needed to uncommanded Columns on the map

   * Indian Tribal Cards are dealt (3.5B)

   * All players are dealt Shaman Cards (3.5D)


C. PLAYER ORDER DETERMINATION PHASE: Players determine who goes

first in Phase D (4.3).


D. CARD PLAY ROUNDS PHASE: Each player, alternating clockwise,

completes a Round of play (4.4) as follows:


   1. RESOURCE ALLOTMENT: Regardless of whose Round it is, the US

   player places one Settlement (5.21) and makes a DR to try to

   build a Railroad or Mine (5.23-.24).


   2. SHAMAN CARD CHOICE: The active player plays or discards a

   Shaman card. If he plays a Shaman Card, he proceeds to the

   Operations Segment (9.12). If he discards a Shaman card, his

   Round is over.


   3. OPERATIONS SEGMENT: The player may perform any Operation

   allowed with his Columns or Tribes.


   After each Operation Segment or discarded Shaman Card, it is

the next player's Round, during which steps 1-3 are repeated,

clockwise, in a round-robin fashion, until all Shaman Cards dealt

that Turn are either played or discarded.




   1. Indian players determine how many SPs are available for

   each of their Tribes in their respective Areas. Villages that

   do not have enough SPs each lose one BP.


   2. Indian players roll for any Tribes that have left the

   country (6.23) as well as any reduced to < half of their

   original strength for possible forced placement On Reservation



   3. The US removes its Attrition BPs (5.38).




   1. Determine if any States have fallen below maintenance level

   requirements (10.3)


   2. Determine if any Territories have enough Resources to apply

   for Statehood (10.2).




   * Each player determines how many VPs he has accumulated that


   * Players remove all cards, Commanders, and yellow markers

     from the map, except for those "Once Only" Shaman Cards

     whose information remains in effect throughout the game. US

     BPs and Missions remain in place. Flip all orange markers

     (i.e. "Broke" and "Hit" Resources and "Finished" Villages)

     to their front side.

   * Return all War Parties to their Villages.

   * Advance the Turn marker to the next space on the Turn Track.


Repeat steps A - G until the end of the seventh Turn (or the

eighth Turn if playing the Campaign Game).




4.21 CARDS: The Shaman and Tribal decks -- minus any cards not to

be used that Turn -- are shuffled at the start of each Turn and

re-dealt (3.5B, D). Undealt cards are always placed face down so

they cannot be seen. If there are less Tribes in play than the 18

(or 20, if there are five players) required -- the Tribal Cards

are distributed as evenly as possible, with the player(s)

currently with the most VPs getting the short end of the

distribution. In the first Turn of the Basic Game (Turn 4), there

are 19 Tribal Cards available for play. In this case if there are

four Indian players, then it is the Indian player who chooses his

Initial Tribe(s) first who gets the short end of the

distribution. The Tribal Cards the players hold in their hands

are the Active Tribes. All other Tribes are Inactive.


4.22 COMMANDERS: At the beginning of each new Turn, the US player

randomly draws the number of Commanders listed on the Turn Track

from the Commander cup and randomly places one with each

uncommanded Column on the board. The rest are put aside in

Reserve for possible use in that Turn (5.43).


Example: It is the start of Turn 3. The US may randomly draw ten

Commanders out of the pool. If there are eight Columns on the map

from the previous Turn, he randomly assigns eight Commanders to

them and holds the remaining two in Reserve.


4.23 TROOPS: The US player now determines how many new BPs he

receives. If the American Civil War (hereafter referred to as the

ACW) has not yet taken place, he rolls the die four times. If the

ACW has already occurred, he rolls the die six times to determine

his new BPs for the Turn. The total rolled is the number of BPs

he receives that Turn. Exception: On the first Turn of the

Campaign Game, the US does not roll for additional BPs.


Example: The ACW has not yet taken place. The US BP rolls are: a

'4', '6', '0', and '1' resulting in 11 BPs being added to the

current US Forces.


   The extreme variation in BP generation is intentional. It

reflects the wide range of mood swings to which Manifest Destiny

policies were subject. Extreme rolls could reflect a major

depression, an influenza epidemic, or a Peace-at-all-costs

presidency on the low side and reaction to a Custer-like debacle

on the high side. Think of it as another Random Event.


4.24 ARTILLERY: The Turn Track also indicates a number of new

Artillery markers for the US each Turn. He may substitute Gatling

guns only after the Gatling Gun Shaman Card (9.2J) has been



4.3 WHO GOES FIRST: On the first Turn, each player rolls the die

with the high roller going first and play proceeding clockwise

thereafter. On each succeeding Turn, the player with the fewest

accumulated VPs goes first. VP ties are resolved by DR with play

proceeding clockwise.




A. In the Resource Allotment segment, regardless of whose Round

it actually is, the US:


   * places one Settlement in any Area (5.21).

   * makes a DR and checks the Resource Table to see if he gets a

     Mine (5.23) or RR (5.21).


   The US will therefore get to place 20 (or 21 in a four player

game) Settlements per Turn and roll the same number of times on

the Resource Table.


B. In the Shaman Card segment, the active player either plays or

discards one Shaman Card (9.1). If a player discards a Shaman

Card, his round is over and play passes, clockwise, to the next

player. If a player plays a Shaman Card, he may (depending on

what "side" he is playing):


   * "play" a number of separate Columns up to the number of

     Indian players (5.33).

   * take an action with one Village, unless an Alliance Card

     allows him to use more than one Village (6.7).


C. When all the dealt Shaman Cards have been played or discarded,

the Card Phase is over.


4.5 SURVIVAL PHASE: All players take part in the Survival Phase



   * Each Indian player determines how many SPs are available in

     each Area in which he has Active Tribes and divides that

     number by ALL Tribes (Active or Inactive) to determine the

     Survival Level for Active Tribes in that Turn (6.6). All

     Active Tribes with half or less of their printed size make a

     DR to determine if they must go On Reservation (8.14).

   * All Tribes in Canada or Mexico (whether Active or not) must

     make a DR and check the Foreign Government Table (6.25).

   * The US player makes a DR to determine his Attrition losses



4.6 STATEHOOD PHASE: The US player checks each of his States to

see if they have met the requirement (10.3) for maintenance of

Resource Points at least as high as the State Resource Level. If

not, he loses VPs, and turning Territories into States that Turn

is not automatic.


   The US player then checks to see if any Territories are

eligible for Statehood by totalling non-broken Resources and

subtracting Massacres in each Territory to determine if the total

exceeds that Territory's Statehood Point Level. If it does, that

Territory has attained statehood (10.2) unless the US has failed

to maintain all its States (10.32).


4.7 END OF TURN PHASE: Each player determines how many VPs he has

scored that Turn.


4.71 CARD DISPOSITION: All cards are returned to their respective

decks except:


   * Tribal Cards that are On Reservation (8.1) or Extinct.

   * Played Shaman Cards with "Play Only Once" restrictions

     (e.g., the ACW card).


4.72 MARKER DISPOSITION: All Commanders are returned to the

Commander cup. BPs remain on the map or in Reserve. All yellow

markers are removed. All orange markers are flipped to their

front side.





5.1 MANIFEST DESTINY OVERVIEW: The US is trying to "civilize" the

Trans-Mississippi, opening the west for the farthest natural

expansion of her borders. The US player wants to increase the

population, mine the resources and spread the communication

network that will enable him to hold it all together, so he can

turn Territories into States. Only the Indians stand in the way.

He can civilize -- or, less politely, get rid of -- them by

extermination or forcing them onto Reservations. The US deploys

his Resources throughout the Turn, before each player starts his

Round. During each US Round, he can play his Columns.


5.11 BEGINNING A TURN: The US starts each new Turn with:


   * 4-15 Shaman cards (depending on the number of players; 3.5D)

   * the BPs he has on the map and in Reserve plus newly rolled

     BPs (4.23) which may enter play in any US Round (5.343).

   * The Artillery markers already on the map and in Reserve plus

     those listed on the Turn Track.

   * A number of newly randomly drawn Commanders equal to those

     listed on the Turn Track.


5.2 RESOURCES: Settlements, Railroads, and Mines are Resources,

representing US growth and expansion. A Resource is worth the

number of Resource Points printed on its marker. Resource Points

in an Area reduce the SPs available to the Indians in that Area.

They also are totalled in each Territory at the end of each Turn

to see if they have exceeded that Area's Statehood Level, thereby

making that Territory eligible for Statehood (10.2).


5.21 SETTLEMENTS: During each Resource Allotment segment of each

Round for every player, the US gets to place a Settlement on the

map. Settlements may be placed in any Area, except for the Indian

Territory, until the Oklahoma Land Rush Shaman Card is played to

open that Territory to settlement. There is no limit to the

number of Settlements that may be placed in an Area. There is no

limit on the number of Settlements that may be placed on the map.

If the US player runs out of Settlement Markers because of

counter mix limits, he may make his own. Additional Settlements

are available when placing Mines (5.23). Settlements may be

eliminated under certain circumstances (7.24 and 9.2K).


5.22 TOWNS: Whenever the number of Settlements in an Area exceeds

five, replace five 1-point Settlements with a '5' point Town.

This is done during the Round when this condition occurs and can

happen several times during the course of a Turn. Towns are much

harder for Indians to attack (7.23).


5.23 MINES: During each Resource Allotment segment of every

player's Round, the US makes a Resource DR. If he rolls a "0",

the US draws a Mine marker from the Mine cup and places it and a

Settlement in the Area listed on the marker. Mines remain on the

map and in play unless a "Ghost Town" Shaman Card is played

(9.2K). "Played out" mines are removed permanently from play;

they are not returned to the Mine cup to be redrawn. Mines are

never removed or broken by Indian actions (7.26). If all Mines

have been drawn, treat any subsequent "0" DR on the Resource

Table as "No Effect".


   Indian attacks against Mines were powerless to stem the

attraction the whites held for the "yellow" metal. While the

Indians were often successful in ruining the day of more than a

few unfortunate miners, they had little effect in stemming the

tide of prospectors and others that followed in the economic wake

of a big strike. While individual miners contributed many a scalp

(or Coup Point) to an Indian Lodge, they were always replaced by

many more willing to risk their hair against the lure of economic

gain. In truth, a depleted mine had a more debilitating and

long-lasting effect on the local white population than any Indian



5.24 RAILROADS (RR): During each Resource Allotment segment of

every player's Round, the US makes a Resource DR. If he rolls a

"7-9", he may place a Railroad (hereafter referred to as RR)

marker on the map. RR markers may be placed in any Area with a

Settlement that is adjacent to an Area already containing a RR

marker. However the number of RR markers in an Area may NOT

exceed the number of Town/Settlement Resource Points. Should the

number of Town/Settlement Resource Points during a Round fall

below the number of RR markers in an Area due to Indian attacks

(7.24) or the "Ghost Town" Shaman Card (9.2K), the excess RR

markers are removed in the same Round. No VPs are awarded to any

player for RR markers removed in this fashion.


   RR markers may be temporarily broken -- made unusable for

Statehood or Survival determination -- by successful Indian

attacks during the current Turn (7.24). Broken RR markers may be

used to satisfy RR marker removal requirements (5.24, 9.2K, and



5.241 THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD: The US player who completes

the Transcontinental RR -- an unbroken "line" of contiguous Areas

from the eastern edge to the western edge of the map -- earns 2

VPs. The Transcontinental RR is considered to be completed at the

end of the Round during the Card Play Round Phase in which the

following conditions exist:


   * There is an unbroken line of contiguous Areas from eastern

     edge to the western edge of the map with RR markers in each

     Area in the line. The line of Areas may be as long and

     devious as the US player desires. The Areas must be

     connected by a common border which may be along the sides of

     each Area or even at the corner (Colorado/Arizona and New


   * There are no broken RR markers in any of Areas in the line.


   When these conditions exist the US player receives the 2 VPs

at the end of the Operation Segment of the Round when they occur.

Thus if this occurs during an Indian player's Round, the Indian

player will have an opportunity to prevent one of the conditions

for completion. These VPs may only be awarded once during the

game. If the conditions no longer exist in a later Round after

completion of the Transcontinental RR, the US player does not

lose any VPs.


   Note that the turning over of all broken RR markers to their

unbroken side during the End of the Turn Phase does not qualify

the US player to receive the 2 VPs for completion of the

Transcontinental RR (assuming that the other condition exists).

He must wait until the Card Play Round Phase of the next Turn

before he can claim completion (by which time there may a new US



5.3 TROOP COLUMNS: Columns may be played by the US in his Round,

after he has played -- not discarded -- a Shaman card. Columns

may also try to React during an Indian round to what that Indian

player is doing. The Column Capability Chart on the Reference

Card is a quick reference to what Columns can do.


5.31 COLUMN FORMATION: The US military presence is represented by

Columns of soldiers. A Column consists of:


   * One Commander (and only one) unless operating in a Combined

     Column (5.7).

   * Troop BPs. The maximum number of BPs in any one Column is

     20; the minimum is one.

   * Possible Artillery (5.5). No more than three Artillery

     markers may accompany a Column.


Columns may not be placed or played without a Commander.


5.32 SPEED: A Column's Speed determines its Pursuit effectiveness

when attacking a War Party (7.53). A Column has a base speed of

three minus one for each multiple of five BPs (or fraction

thereof) beyond five. Base Speed is adjusted by -1 for each Field

Gun in the Column (do not subtract for Gatlings) and the addition

of the Commander's Pursuit Rating. (John Pope's Pursuit rating of

-1 is negative and is subtracted from his Column's Speed.) A

Column can never have a Speed < 0, even if the cumulative

modifiers produce a negative Speed Rating. All stacks are open to

inspection by opposing players at any time.


Example 1: Nelson Miles (Pursuit of 3), 16 BPs, one Field Gun,

and one Gatling Gun would make up a Column with a Speed of '2'

(0 for the 16 BPs, -1 for the Field Gun, +3 for Miles).


Example 2: John Pope (Pursuit of -1), 20 BPs, and three Field

Guns would make up a Column with a Speed of '0'. (0 for the 20

BPs, -3 for the three Field Guns, -1 for Pope. This yields a

cumulative Speed Rating of -4, but since a Column can not have a

Speed Rating < 0, it is then rounded up to 0.)


5.33 COLUMN PLAYS: Columns are played (i.e., placed or moved and

used to attack Indians in the US Round) after the US plays a

Shaman Card. The US may play as many Columns in each Round as

there are Indian players; these may come from those already on

the map or new Columns as yet unplaced. The same Column may not

be played in consecutive US Rounds (even the last Round of one

Turn and the first Round of the next Turn). This does NOT effect

the ability to React (5.35). Columns may not combine their

strength unless they successfully check of Coordination (5.7).


   Place a red "Column Play" marker on each Column played in an

odd-numbered Round and blue "Column Play" marker on each Column

played in an even-numbered Round. At the end of each US Round,

remove the Column Play markers from the previous US Round. Note

that in a Turn where the US player has an odd number of Rounds,

Columns played in the final Round are marked with the blue

"Column Play" markers due to the fact that the US will start his

Card Play Phase on an odd-number Round in the following Turn.


Example: If there are four player, the US may play up to three

Columns in each of his Rounds. Those played may not be played in

his next Round. Often this will mean that he has more Columns on

the map than he has the ability to actively play in his Round.

However, such Columns are still useful to React (5.35) to Indian



5.34 COLUMN STATUS: Each Column is either "On Patrol" or "In

Fort". A Column "In Fort" is one placed inside the Fort box of

each Area. Any Column not inside a Fort box is "On Patrol". There

is no limit to how many Columns can be in either status.


5.341 ON PATROL: A Column On Patrol may be played to:


   * move into any adjacent Area. This move may be across the

     common border between the Areas regardless of whether

     through the sides or the corners (Colorado/Arizona and New

     Mexico/Utah). A Column that moves into a new Area may not

     attack during that Round.

   * attack any Indians in the same Area. Exception: A Village

     may not be attacked if a Peace Policy is in effect or if it

     has a Peace Chief (9.2Q).

   * change status to "In Fort" by moving into the Fort box in

     its current Area (5.6).


5.342 IN FORT: A Column "In Fort" may be played to:


   * change status to "On Patrol" in its current Area.

   * receive reinforcements of additional BPs from the Reserve.


5.343 NEW COLUMNS: Unused BPs and Artillery markers, and a

Commander from the US Reserve may be placed either On Patrol or

In Fort. The US player may freely choose any Commander from the

Reserve he wishes to command a new Column when placed during a

Round. New Columns may not attack during the Round they are

placed (but they may React).


5.344 THE US RESERVE: Any unused BPs and Artillery markers in the

US Reserve at the end of the Turn remain there and are carried

over to the next Turn. These are added to the new BPs and

Artillery markers that the US receives during the Card

Distribution Phase in the next Turn.


5.35 REACTION: Any one On Patrol Column may React to each Indian

action during an Indian Round. A Column may attempt Reaction



   * any War Party that has attacked a Resource or Column in the

     same Area after the Indian attack is completed.

   * any War Party that is returning to its Village (6.35),

     whether after completing an attack or returning due to the

     Village becoming "Finished".

   * any Village that is relocating (6.2) into or out of the

     Column's Area. The Peace Policy (9.2R) restriction against

     attacking Villages does not apply to Villages that are



   Columns may not react to a Raid (6.4) or to War Parties

returning to their Villages during the End of the Turn Phase

(4.1G). ALL On Patrol Columns, even ones with a "Column Played"

marker, are eligible to React. Multiple On Patrol Columns may

attempt to react to the same Indian action. They may even attempt

to coordinate their reacting (5.7). Reacting does not prevent a

Column from being played in the next US Round.


5.351 RESOLUTION: Reaction is successful only if the US Reaction

DR < the Column's Speed. A successful Reaction DR allows the

Column to attack the War Party/Village, even though it is still

the Indian player's Round! A Column that attacks a War Party

returning to its Village does so before the War Party reaches the

Village. If the Telegraph has been invented (9.2CC), a Column may

react into an adjacent Area, but must add one to its Reaction DR.


Example: A Column of 13 BPs (no artillery) is On Patrol under

Phil Sheridan (2 2 2) in Colorado. The Column has a Speed of '3',

and the Telegraph has been invented. An Arapaho War Party in

Wyoming has attacked a Mine there, but there are no Columns in

Wyoming. The US attempts to React with Sheridan's Colorado Column

against the Arapaho attack in Wyoming. He needs an adjusted DR of

0-3 to do so. He rolls a '3', but as he is reacting into an

adjacent Area, which the Telegraph allows him to do, he adds one

to that DR and his Reaction attempt fails. Sheridan's Column

stays in Colorado. Had the reaction attempt succeeded, Sheridan's

Column would have moved to Wyoming -- still On Patrol.


5.36 RELOCATION: A US Reaction Attack against a Village

attempting to Relocate out of the Column's Area will not stop the

Village from "reaching" its intended location, unless Indian

losses are greater than the Column's losses.


5.37 LOSSES: Column strength may be reduced by Combat results

(7.32), Attrition (5.38), and Shaman Cards such as "The American

Civil War" (9.2A).


5.38 ATTRITION: In the Survival Phase, the US makes an Attrition

DR. The result is the number of Columns that must lose one BP

each. If the DR is > the number of Columns, ignore the excess.

The US chooses which Columns will take the losses.


5.39 TRANSFERS: At the end of the Turn, even though all

Commanders are removed, all BPs remain in place on the map or in

Reserve. The Commanders randomly assigned to Columns at the

beginning of the next Turn assume that same In Fort or On Patrol

status based on their location on the map.


5.4 COMMANDERS: Commanders are used to lead and affect the

capabilities of the Army troop Columns.


   We have used historical military personnel, but have not used

all of those that fought during the wars. The 24 chosen therefore

represent not only themselves, but also those not specifically

included. This is why they seem to have rather extended careers.

Due to the nature of the game, they will rarely appear in

correct chronological order.


5.41 SOLE COMMAND: Each Column must have a sole Commander unless

operating as a Coordinated Column (5.7).


5.42 RATINGS: Each Commander has three numbers which rate his

performance in three key areas.


   * COMBAT is the DRM used to adjust a Battle Table DR.

   * PURSUIT is the number used to adjust the Speed of his Column

     (5.32). George Crook's rating includes a "G" reflecting his

     "Guerilla" capability, enabling him to subtract one from any

     Pursuit DR in Mountain Areas.

   * AGGRESSION is a measure of the tendency to rash, hostile

     action, conducive to producing a massacre. Some of the

     "Pro-Indian" Commanders have negative ratings which prevent

     them from ever being responsible for a massacre.


5.43 GENERATION: The US starts each Turn by randomly drawing from

the Commander cup the number of Commanders listed for that Turn.

In the Marker Distribution Phase, the US then randomly assigns a

Commander to each Column on the map. Any remaining Commanders are

placed in Reserve for possible assignment later in the Turn

(5.343). If a Commander is killed, he is removed from play

permanently (7.8).


5.44 ACW: AS soon as the ACW Card is played in the Campaign Game,

the number of Commanders available that Turn is halved. The US

removes ALL Commanders currently in play, places them in a

separate cup, and draws half of them. These are his Commanders

for that Turn. If necessary, he may realign his distribution of

BPs, which will also have been halved by the ACW. He may freely

reassign his remaining Commanders to whichever Columns he



5.45 DIVIDING COLUMNS: The US may create new Columns from those

already In Fort on the map by subdividing one Column into two (or

more) and assigning the Commanders of his choice from the Reserve

to the newly created Columns as they move out of Fort and On



5.46 END GAME COMMANDER GENERATION: For the 7th and 8th Turns,

there are no fixed number of Commanders available. Instead,

Commander generation depends on the following formula:


   24 - (# of States) + (half of # of Tribes in play*)

   * = neither Extinct nor On Reservation


   The US may have to remove some on-map Columns to conform to

the reduced number of Commanders. These BPs are not "lost", they

may be placed into any In Fort Column or into the Reserve.


Example: There are 13 States at the start of Turn 7. There are

also nine Tribes still "in play". This means the US gets 15

Commanders: 24 - 13 + (9/2) = 15.


   US military commitment to the West at the end of the century

was totally dependent on the amount of Indian activity.


5.5 ARTILLERY: Artillery gives the US player an advantage in



   The Indians greatly feared artillery because of its long range

destructive power and their total inability to defend against it

(witness Pike's Indians during the Battle of Pea Ridge in the

ACW). While it did slow Columns down, when artillery could be

brought into line during a battle, the Indians rarely stuck

around. Gatling guns were the forerunner of the modern machinegun

and, like any first model, were fraught with mechanical problems,

overheating and jamming frequently. Custer had Gatlings in his

Columns, but left them behind at Little Big Horn.


5.51 AVAILABILITY: The US receives one or two new Artillery units

each Turn, as listed on the Turn Track. There are two types of

Artillery, Field Artillery (also known as Field Guns) and Gatling

Guns. The US may select either type, but he may take only one

Gatling per Turn and may not take a Gatling Gun before its

invention (9.2J).


5.52 COLUMN LIMITS: The US may attach up to three Artillery

markers to each Column.


5.53 EFFECTS: For each Field Artillery marker in a battle, the US

adds one to any combat DR. However, for each Field Gun in a

Column, subtract one from its Speed.


5.54 GATLING GUNS: For each Gatling Gun in a Column there is a

possibility that the US can add one to his Battle DR. Before

determining the Battle DRMs for that Column (7.31), roll a die

for each Gatling Gun. For each odd DR, the US may add one to his

upcoming Battle DR. Gatling Guns do not effect Column Speed.


5.55 LOSS: An Artillery marker of either type may be substituted

for any BP loss by Combat or Attrition. Each Artillery marker is

equal to 1 BP.


5.6 FORTS: The following rules apply to forts.


   The Forts the Army built, dismantled, rebuilt, tore down, then

built elsewhere, all over the West, were used mostly for housing

troops, as the US posture was offensive, not defensive. The

Indians rarely attacked forts, and, when they did, they got badly



5.61 IN/OUT: Each Area contains a Fort symbol. A Column must be

either On Patrol or In Fort. Columns placed inside an Area's Fort

symbol are "In Fort". Those placed outside it are "On Patrol". A

Column that is already On Patrol may be placed In Fort (or vice

versa) as one of the Column "plays" the US has in his Round

(5.33). A Column that changes its status may not do anything else

at that time.


5.62 ATTACKS NA: Columns In Fort may not change Areas or attack.

They may not be attacked, but are subject to Attrition (5.38).


5.7 COLUMN COORDINATION: Generally, the US must move and/or

attack with one Column at a time. He may, however, attempt to

coordinate several Columns into one attack or in an reaction to

an Indian action.


5.71 AUTOMATIC ATTACK: The US may attempt to combine up to three

On Patrol Columns into one attack. All of the participating

Columns must start in the same Area. The US attacks with the

fastest Column (his choice in the case of ties). This first

Column must attack regardless of whether the other Columns

coordinate or not.


   The US may also attempt to combine up to three On Patrol

Columns into a reaction against an Indian action in the same

Area. The first Column to successfully react must chase the

Indians, but the other Columns must also attempt and succeed in

their respective reactions in order to attempt coordination with

the first Column.


5.72 COORDINATION: For each additional Column he wants to

include, the US makes a Coordination DR:


   * If the Coordination DR is < the joining Column's Speed, it

     has combined for the attack.

   * If the Coordination DR is > the joining Column's Speed, it

     fails to coordinate and stays On Patrol in it original Area,

     but still counts as a Column played.


5.721 EVASION: An Indian player may attempt Evasion at any time

during the above proceedings. At this point only those Columns

that have been rolled for or played are considered when

determining Evasion (7.51).


5.722 MAXIMUM EFFECT: Coordinated Columns total their BPs. There

is no size limitations on a Coordinated Column, the size can

exceed the normal 20 BPs and three Artillery markers limitation

for a single Column. The Combat, Pursuit, and Aggression ratings

of the Commanders present are used as follows:


   * COMBAT: The highest rating available, plus one for each

     additional Commander with a Combat rating of 2.

   * PURSUIT: The single highest rating available.

   * AGGRESSION: Total Aggression ratings of all Commanders



5.723 CONTINUED OPERATIONS: Coordinated Columns may stay together

or separate (with their original BPs) during a Turn. However,

they may not leave the Area together. A Coordinated Column may

React, but considering the fact that its vast size will cause its

Speed Rating to be 0, it is probably better if the member Columns

separate and attempt to React individually. At the end of the

Turn, or if they leave the Area, each Column must be separated.

Any losses in BPs and/or Artillery markers that the Coordinated

Column sustained while together may be apportioned out to the

individual Columns at the US player's discretion.


5.724 SOLE OPERATION: Regardless of the number of original

Columns in a Coordinated Column, if the US operates with a

Coordinated Column, that is the only operation he may undertake

that Round (5.33).





   SURVIVAL: The Indian player(s) is trying to keep his Tribes

alive. In surviving, he denies the US certain points, and also

avoids losing points for extinction. He also helps his cause by

hindering US efforts to obtain statehood by successfully

attacking Resources, gaining Coup Points in the process. Coup is

also "counted" for success in battle.


6.1 OVERVIEW: Each Indian player -- depending on how many there

are -- starts each Card Playing Phase with:


   One Indian player: 15 Shaman and 18 Tribal cards.

   Two Indian players: 7 Shaman and 9 Tribal cards.

   Three Indian players: 5 Shaman and 6 Tribal cards.

   Four Indian players: 4 Shaman and 5 Tribal cards.


   Indian players start each Turn with more Tribes than Shaman

Cards. When it is an Indian player's Turn, he may do any one of

the following with any one of his Active tribal Villages, each

time he plays a Shaman Card:


   * RELOCATE the Village to an adjacent Area.

   * RAID. This requires a Raider Tribe and play of a Raid Shaman

     Card. Alternately it could require any Tribe and play of the

     "Any Tribe Can Raid" Shaman Card.

   * WAR PARTY to the same or adjacent Area against:

       * an enemy War Party or Village.

       * a Resource.

       * a Column.

   * Do none of the above and double its SPs, which, while not

     earning any VPs, may help avoid extinction (6.66).


   Villages from the same Tribe may not combine in a Round unless

the Tribal Alliance Shaman Card (9.2FF) has been played.


6.2 RELOCATION: Many Tribes did not stay in one place. They were

constantly on the move, some from nomadic habit, others to avoid

the constant encroachments of settlers. Players will usually try

to relocate Tribes because their present Areas offer too little

chance of survival.


6.21 ACTIONS: Relocation counts as one of the two (maximum)

actions a Village may undertake per Turn. Thus, a Village may

undertake two Relocations per Turn. Any Village may attempt to

Relocate. A Village attempts to Relocate by moving into any

adjacent Area.


6.22 MULTIPLE VILLAGES: If a Tribe has more than one Village

(such as the Sioux), one Village can relocate while the others

stay put during a Round. However all Villages may relocate during

a Turn, just on different Rounds.


6.23 LEAVING THE COUNTRY: Villages may Relocate into Mexico or

Canada, if adjacent to those countries. If the Tribe/Village is

successful in leaving the country it is still "in play", but

cannot do anything other than return to an adjacent US Area (by,

once again, relocating).


6.24 BORDER SANCTITY: Tribes in Mexico or Canada may not be

attacked, nor do they check for survival normally. Whoever

controls their Tribal card may decide to return them to play by

Relocation. Returning Tribes/Villages may enter the Area that

they originally left from or an Area adjacent to the original one

along the Canadian or Mexican borders.


6.25 FOREIGN GOVERNMENT: In the Survival Phase, each Village in

Mexico or Canada (whether Active or not) makes a Survival DR to

determine the effect of that foreign government on the Village.


Die Roll    Result

  0-5       No change.

  6-8       Village driven out. US places it in adjacent Area

            (6.24) and halves its BPs.

   9        Village is destroyed. If the only Village in the

            Tribe, then the Tribe is Extinct.


6.3 WAR PARTIES: A War Party is concerted effort by the Tribe to

wreak havoc on its enemies, whether they be the Army, settlers,

or other Tribes.


6.31 COMPOSITION: To launch a War Party in his Round, the Indian

player reveals (if necessary) the appropriate Tribal card to

indicate it is the one being used. He states the target and

location and places the Village's War Party in the target Area

with a BP marker, indicating the amount of available strength

from that Village which is being used. The number of BPs must be

< to those available with that Village. He may also use any

Chiefs that are available for that Tribe by placing them beneath

the War Party marker. A Chief is not required to be with the War

Party. Refer to the Tribal Card to determine the War Party's

Combat, Evasion, and Aggression ratings.


6.32 MULTIPLE WAR PARTIES: A Village may send out only one War

Party per Turn unless it has more than one Chief available during

that Turn. A Village with more than one Chief may send out two

War Parties per Turn (one War Party per Round) if it has enough

Chiefs to send a separate one with each Party. Separate War

Parties from the same Village each have their own BPs which come

from the Village's total available BPs for that Turn. A Village

may not send out a second War Party if it's first War Party has

already returned to Village, causing it to become "Finished"



Example: In Turn 4, the Southern Cheyenne have three Chiefs

available: Bull Bear, Roman Nose, and Tall Bull, with a total of

6 BPs available in the Village. In one Round they send out a War

Party consisting of 3 BPs, led by Chief Bull Bear. In a later

Round they send out a second War Party consisting of 2 BPs, led

by Chief Roman Nose. This leaves one BP and Chief Tall Bull in

the Village.


6.33 TARGETS: War Parties may be used against:


   * "Enemy" Villages (as listed on its Tribal card)

   * the Village of a Tribe that attacked its Tribe in that Turn

   * any War Party in the same Area not listed as friendly on its

     Tribal card

   * Resources

   * Columns On Patrol


Neither War Parties nor Villages may React (5.35).


6.34 MULTIPLE ATTACKS: A War Party may make more than one attack

in a Turn. However, it would have to make the additional attack

in a subsequent Round, as only one War Party -- and one attack

-- is allowed per Round unless a "Rampage" Shaman card is in play



6.35 POST ACTION CHOICE: When a War Party has finished its action

for the Round, regardless of the results, it has the following



   * It may remain on the map (to possibly move/attack in a

     subsequent Round of that Turn) if it has taken only one

     action during that Turn.

   * It may return to its Village (flipping the Village marker

     over to its orange "Finished" side - 6.8)


   When a War Party has finished its second action in a

subsequent Round of that Turn or has finished what turns out to

be the second action for the Village that turn (the Village

performed some other action in an earlier Round), it must then

return to its Village (flipping the Village to its "Finished"

side) at the end of that Round. Also if the Village performs its

second action while the War Party is still on the map, causing it

to become "Finished", or has the Smallpox Shaman Card played on

it, then the War Party must return to the Village at the end of

that Round.


   Note that a War Party may remain on the map until the end of

the Turn if it performed the only action that its Village had

taken during that Turn. In this case the War Party returns to the

Village during the End of the Turn Phase.


6.36 RANGE: A War Party may enter and attack a target in any

adjacent Area or attack a target in its currently occupied Area.

At the start of the Turn a War Party's currently occupied Area is

the Area where it's Village is.  War Parties may not enter

Mexico, Canada, or the gray area along the eastern edge of the

map. At the end of the Turn, all War Parties are returned to

their Villages. A War Party may never move more than two Areas

away from its Village. Thus, a War Party from a Village in

Arizona could not move into South Dakota.


   This gives War Parties an exaggerated range for the sake of

play balance. Players who wish a more "historical" approach may

choose to limit range to adjacent Areas.


6.4 RAIDS: Raids are very small groups which were looking more

for "loot" (and the honor of counting coup) than anything else.

Only Tribes that raided on a regular basis are so rated.


6.41 RAIDERS: Raids are launched only when playing a Raid Shaman

Card (9.2B or T).


   Only Indian players may raid and usually only with Tribes that

are "Raiders". A Raid counts as that player's sole action during

that Round.


6.42 NON-RAIDERS: If an "Any Tribe May Raid" Shaman card is

played, that player may Raid with any one of his Tribes,

regardless of its "Raider" status (9.2B). A non-Raider Tribe has

a Raid rating of 2.


6.43 TARGETS: To Raid, the Indian player plays his "Raid" Shaman

card, states which of his Tribes is raiding (revealing the Tribal

card from his hand if not already played), and announces the

target. The target may be any Resource or Mission that is in the

same Area as the Tribe's Village or an Area adjacent to it. Those

Tribes listing "Mexico Raids" may also choose Mexico as a target

if the Village is in an Area adjacent to it.


6.44 RESOLUTION: To resolve a Raid, the Indian makes a Raid DR

and compares it to the Tribe's Raid rating. If the Natural DR is

< the Tribe's Raid rating, the Raid is successful and the player

earns a VP (two VPs if raiding Mexico). The target is unaffected

unless it is a Mission. If the Raid DR is > the Tribe's Raid

rating, there is no effect.


6.45 MISSION RAIDS: Tribes do not earn VPs for Raiding a Mission.

However, a successful Raid against a Mission removes it from

play. The Mission can be rebuilt with a Missionary Shaman Card. A

destroyed Mission is always treated as a Massacre (7.6).


6.5 CHIEFS: "Chiefs" were not so much government heads with the

power to issue orders, etc., as warriors with influence gained

through wisdom and courage. They led through charisma and

example. Chiefs are used mostly to affect a Tribe's capabilities

in fighting (and evading) Columns. We have tried to include as

many of the historical chiefs as possible but many have been

omitted. Some Tribes have none, mostly because they would not

have measurably increased the Tribe's innate abilities. The

chiefs' names used in the game are the "familiar" anglicized

versions, some of which are rather poor translations of their

actual names (which we have included in our historical notes,

where known).


6.51 AVAILABILITY: Not all Tribes have Chief markers. Chiefs and

the Turns in which they are available are listed in their Tribal

card. Chiefs are available for use during their listed Turns

whenever a player activates their Tribe unless they have been

previously killed in battle (7.8) or imprisoned (7.81). They are

not selected randomly. Available Chiefs are always considered to

be in their Villages (unless stacked with a War Party). The

player with the Sioux should divide his available Teton Chiefs

between whichever of the two Teton Villages he designates at the

start of the Turn.


Example: The Shoshone Tribal card shows Pocatello as available

during Turns 1 and 2; Bear Hunter as available during Turns 3 and

4. The reverse side of the markers for these Chiefs lists the

same information.


6.52 RATINGS: Each Chief is rated for the following capabilities,

as printed from left to right on the marker:


   * Combat: Modifies any War Party Battle DR (7.31) and also

     modifies any Battle DR when defending his Village (7.4).

   * Evasion: This number is added to the Tribe's rating to

     determine Evasion capabilities.

   * Aggression: This rating is added to the Tribe's rating to

     determine if a Massacre as occurred (7.25).


6.53 MULTIPLE CHIEFS: A Tribe can have more than one Chief

available in a Turn. There is no limit to the number of Chiefs

that may accompany each War Party, but each Chief can be

"assigned" to only one War Party each Turn. If there is more than

one Chief available in a given Turn, two War Parties are

available (6.32). With several Chiefs in a War Party, their

ratings are used as follows:


   * Combat: The highest rating available is used plus one for

     each additional Chief with a Combat rating of '2' or '3'.

   * Evasion: Use the highest rating available.

   * Aggression: Total the ratings of all Chiefs available.


Example: In Turn 4, the Southern Cheyenne have available Bull

Bear (1 1 1), Roman Nose (2 0 1), and Tall Bull (2 1 1). If they

were all in the same War Party, it would have a Chief Combat

rating of 3 (2 for Roman Nose plus one for Tall Bull); an Evasion

Rating of '1' (for Tall Bull); and an Aggression Rating of 3

(adding them all together).


6.6 SURVIVAL: The first number beneath an Area's name is the

total number of SPs available to Tribes in that Area. For

example, California has 24 while Arizona has only 16. In

addition, each Tribe/Village has its own Survival Rating listed

at the top left of its tribal card.


   The Indian Territories have few SPs because of the presence of

many Tribes not in the game, such as the Cherokee, Osage,

Choctow, Seminole, Chickasaw, Creek, and Kickapoo already

"relocated" there.


6.61 ACTIVE TRIBES: In the Survival Phase of each Turn, the

Indian players check for each Tribe that was Active that Turn. Do

not check for Inactive Tribes although those do use SPs (6.63).

For Tribes not to lose any BPs in the Survival Phase, they must

earn SPs from their Area which are > their Tribe Survival Rating.


6.62 SP REDUCTION: The number of SPs available in each Area is

reduced by the Resources there (excluding Broken Railroads;

7.24), plus any "Bad Weather, -2" and "Buffalo Skull, -2" markers

(9.2E & G). Subtract the number printed on each of those markers

in the Area from its base Survival Number to get the available

SPs for that Turn. A "Good Weather, +2" marker will increase that

Area's SPs by two. Massacre markers do not affect Survival.


6.63 SURVIVAL SHARE: The Indian players then divide the available

SPs by the number of all Tribal Villages, Active and Inactive, in

that Area. Leftover points go to the largest Villages (in

descending order of current BPs), with ties resolved by DR.


6.64 ADJUSTMENTS: The number of SPs earned by an Active

Tribe/Village may be modified as follows:


   * Tribes whose Villages have been successfully attacked by

     Columns have their earned SPs reduced by the strength of all

     Devastation markers placed (7.41).

   * Villages that did nothing (neither relocating, raiding,

     etc.) double their SPs earned. Keep track of such Tribes by

     not flipping over their Tribal markers.

   * If there is a Mission in the Area, the earned SPs of each

     Village are doubled (9.2N).


   All modifiers are cumulative.


6.65 CONSEQUENCES: If a Village's earned SPs are > the tribal

Survival Rating, nothing happens. If they are < the tribal

Survival Rating, the Village loses one BP.


Example: Idaho has a Survival Level of '18' with three

Settlements and three RR markers -- one which has been hit by a

War Party and is now "Broke" and therefore does not count -- for

a total of seven Resource points, which reduce the SPs to 11

available for that Turn. The Bannock, Nez Perce, and the Shoshone

(all with Survival Ratings of '4') have their Villages in Idaho.

11/3 = 3 with two leftover. The Nez Perce with seven BPs and the

Shoshone with five BPs, each get four SPs. The Bannocks get the

remaining three SPs. This means that, while the Nez Perce and

Shoshone remain intact, the Bannock lose one BP. If a Mission was

in Idaho, the Bannock would get six BPs and be unaffected. If the

Bannock had taken no action in that Turn, their SPs would be

doubled again to twelve. Had the Bannock been victim of a

"Devastated -1", they would only have 2 basic SPs which would be

doubled to 4 for inaction and 8 for a mission.


6.66 EXTINCTION: A Tribe reduced to '0' BPs by any means is

extinct and out of the game. The player controlling that Tribe

that Turn loses three VPs for it becoming extinct. Note that

Tribes with multiple Villages lose three VPs per Village that

becomes extinct.


6.7 TRIBAL ALLIANCES: One of the tragedies of the Indian

resistance was their almost legendary inability to combine into

one, cohesive force. Tribal alliances were almost impossible,

given the morass of inter-tribal jealousies, mutual raiding, and

differences in language, lifestyles, etc. The one or two such

alliances that did happen were usually of short duration.

However, when they did occur, they could be remarkably effective,

mostly because the US Army had come to believe such things would

never which the fate of George Armstrong Custer

readily attests.


6.71 ELIBIBLE TRIBES: Normally, each Tribe (even different

Villages of the same Tribe) undertakes operations individually,

and only one Village may "go" after the play of a Shaman card.

However, when an Indian player plays the Tribal Alliance Shaman

Card, he may combine into one War Party operation all the Tribes

(and sub-Tribes) in his "hand" that are listed as friendly to

each other or to at least one other Tribe in that "alliance", and

are in or adjacent to the same Area in which the operation will

take place. No Tribe may be an enemy to another Tribe in the

Alliance even if they are both friendly to the other Tribes in

the Alliance. Any operations (actions) undertaken to use allied

Tribes/Villages are treated as a single operation for "one-per-

Round" limits. However each Tribe/Village in the Alliance is

considered to have taken one action for each action that the

Alliance takes as a whole.


6.72 RANGE: A War Party under a Tribal Alliance may move into any

adjacent Area or its currently occupied Area to join in an attack

with other War Parties in the target area. A War Party may never

move more than two Areas away from its Village when participating

in an Alliance operation.


6.73 EFFECTS: When different Tribes combine under an Alliance

card they total all BPs they wish to make available, and use the

highest Tribal Ratings available among them. In addition, they

may include all Battle DRMs that each Tribe/Village brings with

them into the Alliance. These may be DRMs inherent to the Tribe

(such as the Snake's Poison Arrows) or they may be DRMs bestowed

upon the individual Tribe/Village from the play of a Shaman card

in an earlier Round during the Turn (such as Shaman Medicine

Shaman Cards, 9.2). However any detriments that these Shaman

cards force upon the individual contributing Tribes/Villages are

forced upon the combined Alliance War Party as well.


Example: An Indian player plays a Tribal Alliance card. He has,

for that Turn, the Sioux, Arapaho, and Assiniboine Tribal Cards,

the latter two being friendly with the Sioux. The Teton Sioux

have two Villages in Montana, with the Arapaho in Wyoming and the

Assiniboine in North Dakota. That player wishes to launch a War

Party against a Column On Patrol in Montana. The Arapaho and

Assiniboine both move their War Parties into Montana and join the

two Teton Sioux War Parties, combining their strengths to attack

that Column. Each Sioux War Party has 6 BPs apiece, the Arapaho

War Party has 5 BPs with the effects of the Blood Lust Shaman

Card (9.2F) which was played upon the Tribe in an earlier Round,

and the Assiniboine War Party has 3 BPs with the effects of the

Shaman Medicine Shaman Card (9.2Z) which was played upon the

Tribe in an earlier Round. Thus the combined strength of the

Alliance War Party is 20 BPs with Battle Rating of 2, and Evasion

Rating of 2, an Aggression Rating of 3, and a total DRM of +4

from the combined effects of Shaman Cards. However if the

combined Alliance War Party loses at least one BP in any Battle

it must make a separate DR for every Chief in the War Party to

see if they are killed due to the effects of the Assiniboine's

Shaman Medicine Shaman Card and it cannot use Evasion for the

rest of the Turn due to the effects of the Arapaho's Blood Lust

Shaman Card.


6.74 MULTIPLE CHIEFS: Chiefs from allied Tribes may be used to

"lead" any single combined War Party in the same fashion as in

Rule 6.53.


Example: Continuing the above example, the Sioux have sent Chiefs

Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse with their respective War Parties

and the Arapaho have sent Chief Black Bear with theirs. The

Assiniboine have sent none as they have no Chiefs. The combined

ratings of the three Chiefs is as follows: Combat Rating - 4,

Evasion Rating - 3, and Aggression Rating - 4. However they

cannot use their combined Evasion Rating due to the effects of

the Arapaho's Blood Lust Shaman Card.


6.75 DURATION: Alliances last the remainder of the Turn in which

the card was played. This means that it is possible for the

Alliance to send out a second combined War Party, assuming that

the contributing Tribe/Villages have the necessary BPs, Chiefs,

and remaining Actions to do so. Also if an Alliance consists of

various Tribe/Villages, some of which have already taken one

Action on a Round prior to the formation of the Alliance, and

others which have not taken any Actions as of yet, those

Tribes/Villages which have only one Action left are considered to

be "Finished" after the Alliance as a whole takes one Action. The

War Parties of the "Finished" Tribes/Villages are removed from

the combined War Party at the end of the Round which it completes

its first Action and are returned to their respective Villages

along with any beneficial DRMs and detriments that these

Tribe/Villages had. This also occurs if a contributing Village

becomes Finished for some reason while its War Party is part of

the combined War Party. These War Parties are subject to Reaction

by US Columns, but defend with the ratings of their own Tribe and

the effects of Shaman cards on their own Villages.


Example: Continuing the above example, the Assiniboine had

performed an earlier action in a previous Round before the

formation of the Alliance (they relocated from South Dakota to

North Dakota). Thus at the end of the combined War Party's first

action, the Assiniboine War Party is returned to its Village. The

combined War Party loses 3 BPs and the +2 DRM for the

Assiniboine's Shaman Medicine Shaman Card, but now they no longer

have to make DRs for each Chief in the combined War Party if they

lose a BP in Battle (assuming that they did not lose any in the

previous Battle). However they still have the effects of the

Blood Lust Shaman Card on the Arapaho Tribe. This gives the

combined War Party a +2 DRM and they still can not use Evasion

for the remainder of the Turn. All three remaining War Parties

may remain combined in that Area and be used once more that Turn

before their respective Villages are Finished. This is all done

in the same Round.


6.76 MULTIPLE PLAYER ALLIANCES: Other Indian players with

unfinished Tribes in or adjacent to the Alliance Area may

volunteer their BPs and Chiefs for inclusion in the Alliance War

Party. The Tribes volunteered must be listed as friendly to at

least one other Tribe in that alliance and not an enemy to any

Tribe in that same Alliance. Those forces are moved by the player

who played the Alliance card in his Round and count as an

Operation (action) taken in their own respective Rounds. The

player in charge of the Alliance earns all VPs won by the

combined War Party (though he may share them with the other

players in the Alliance at his option) and determines which

Tribes must suffer any BP losses inflicted on the War Party.


6.8 TRIBAL USAGE: No Village may be used more than twice per Turn

(once per Round). After a Village (or a War Party from that

Village) has undertaken its second action (or the War Party has

returned to the Village following its first action), flip the

Village to its "Finished" side. A War Party is returned to its

Village the same Round that the Village becomes Finished. Note

that it is possible for a Village to be unfinished at the end of

the Turn because it only performed one action that Turn or its

War Party performed only one action and is still on the map. The

unfinished War Party is still returned to its Village during the

End of the Turn Phase though.


   Each Village in a Multi-Village Tribe may be used twice per

Turn, assuming that the controlling Indian player has sufficient

Shaman Card plays available.





   The individual Indian was a far better fighter than his US

counterpart. However, all his individualism weighed heavily

against any sort of organized, disciplined warfare, which is

where the US Army excelled.


7.1 JOINING BATTLE: The following types of Combat may occur

during a Round:


War Party Attacks by Indian Players Against:

   * a Resource (7.2).

   * a Column that is On Patrol (7.3).

   * a Village of an "Enemy" Tribe (7.4).

   * a Village of a Tribe that attacked that War Party's Tribe in

     that Turn (7.4).

   * a War Party in the same Area of any Tribe that is not a

     Friend (7.3).

   * a Mission (7.71).


On Patrol Column Attacks (including Reactions) Against:

   * a War Party (7.3).

   * a Village (7.4).


   All of these battles are resolved using the Battle Table (7.3)

except for Indian attacks on Resources (7.2).


7.2 INDIAN ATTACKS ON RESOURCES: Indians attack Resources to deny

"Statehood" points to the US and to gain VPs.


7.21 RANGE: As his operation during his Round, an Indian player

may launch a War Party against a Resource in or adjacent to the

Area it occupies by announcing the target and moving the War

Party if necessary.


7.22 TARGETS: Resources that may be attacked by War Parties

include Settlements, Towns, Mines, and RR. "Broke RR (7.24) may

not be attacked. No Resource may be "hit" successfully more than

once per Turn.


7.23 RESOLUTION: To resolve an attack against a Resource, the

Indian player makes a DR and compares it to the number of BPs in

the War Party plus the Combat rating of any Chief in that War

Party. If the attack is against a Town, add five to the DR. No

other DR modifiers may be used in attacks against Resources. If

the modified DR is < to the War Party's adjusted strength, the

attack is successful. If the DR is > the War Party's adjusted

strength, the attack has failed. There is no penalty to the

attacker other than the lack of success.


7.24 CONSEQUENCES: If the attack is successful, the Indian player

earns the VPs listed in 10.12 for that type of target. In

addition, the target suffers the following effects:


   * a Settlement is removed from play.

   * a Town is replaced with three Settlements.

   * a RR is flipped to its "Broke" side. It may not be used that

     Turn to determine Statehood or Survival but is returned to

     its operative side at the end of the Turn. The "Broke"

     status has no effect on other RR markers in the Area with

     the possible exception of determining the completion of the

     Transcontinental Railroad.

   * a Mine is flipped to its "Hit" side to indicate it may not

     be attacked again that Turn. Mines are not "Broke". They are

     removed only by "Ghost Town" Shaman Cards.


7.25 MASSACRES: If the attack was successful and achieved by

making a Natural '0-2' DR, check for a possible Massacre by

making another DR and comparing it to the total of the Tribe's

Aggression rating plus the Aggression rating of any Chief(s)

leading that War Party. Note that a Tribe's Aggression rating can

be improved by certain Shaman Cards (9.2F & Z). If the DR is < to

the total Aggression, place a Massacre marker in that Area. No

points are awarded for a Massacre, but the US must subtract the

number of Massacre markers in each Territory when determining

their application for Statehood.


Example #1: An Apache War Party of four BPs, led by Geronimo,

attacks a "3" Mine in Arizona. The Indian player rolls a '5',

which is lower than the total BPs (4) plus Geronimo's Combat

rating of '2'. The attack on the Mine is successful--flip the

Mine to its "Hit" side. The Indian player earns three VPs. The

successful DR was a '5' so no Massacre is possible.


Example #2: A Sioux War Party of seven BPs, led by Inkpaduta,

hits a Town in Minnesota. The Sioux's success range is 0-8 (seven

for the size of the War Party plus one for the Chief's Combat

rating), but there is a +5 DRM for the Town. The Indian player

rolls a '2', for a modified DR of '7', which is within the

Success range. The Indian player earns five VPs, and the Town is

replaced by three Settlements. However, as the DR was a natural

'2', a Massacre is possible. The Santee Sioux have a '1'

Aggression rating and Inkpaduta has a '2' Aggression rating, so

the Massacre Range is 0-3. A Massacre DR of < 3 will produce a



7.26 LIMITS: Each Resource may be attacked by a War Party

successfully only once per Turn. However, a Resource may have any

number of unsuccessful attacks prior to a successful one against

it in a Turn. Also, a Resource may be raided repeatedly. A hit

Mine does not affect its ability to supply Resource Points to the

US, or subtract from the Survival Rating of the Area.


7.3 BATTLES: Battles occur in all War Party vs War Party, and War

Party vs Column combat. Attacks on Resources (7.2) are not



7.31 MODIFIERS: To resolve a Battle, each player makes a DR, adds

any relavent DRMs, and checks the Battle Table. Any combinations

of DRMs > +8 or < -8 are treated as +8 or -8 respectively. The

possible modifiers are:


   * ODDS DRM: The battling players compare BPs to use the Odds

     DRM. The resulting ratio is then rounded down in favor of

     the US. However, if an Ambush is in effect, the odds are

     rounded off in favor of the Indians. The possible odds are

     as follows; 1-3 or worse, 1-2, 2-3, 1-1, 3-2, 2-1, and 3-1

     or better. Each player uses the odds applicable to him. This

     DRM does not apply to attacking an undefended Village. Note

     that there is no DRM for 1-1 odds on the Battle Table. In

     Indian vs Indian battles the odds are rounded off

     mathematically to the nearest odds ratio in the table. If

     equaldistant, the ratio is rounded off in favor of the

     non-active Indian.


Example 1: Nine US BPs attack four Indian BPs. There is no

Ambush. The US gets a +4 DRM for 3-1 odds, as his odds are

rounded up to 3-1 in his favor. The 4-9 Indian gets a -4 DRM, as

his odds are rounded down to 1-3 odds. If it were an Ambush, the

odds would be 2-1 and 1-2 respectively.


Example 2: Eight Indian BPs attack three Indian BPs; the ratio of

8-3 rounds off to 3-1. An attack of ten Indian BPs on four Indian

BPs (equaldistant between 3-1 and 2-1) would be rounded off in

favor the inactive player (2-1).


   * TRIBAL BATTLE RATING: A Tribe's Battle Rating is used only

     in Indian vs Indian battles or if the Tribe is defending

     against a Column--never when attacking a Column. The

     attacking player is the player that initiated the combat,

     even if, later on, an Ambush occurs.


     Indians were far better at defending than attacking. The

     organization and training of the US troops proved superior

     on offense, a superiority also reflected in the not

     inconsiderable advantage of rounding odds in their favor.


   * AMBUSH: The Indian adds +3 to his Battle DR if he is

     ambushing a Column (7.54).

   * LEADERS: Players add the Combat rating of their respective

     Chiefs/Commander (5.42 & 6.52).

   * ARTILLERY: The US adds +1 for each Field Artillery unit in

     the Column.

   * GATLING GUN: The US adds +1 for each effective Gatling Gun

     in the Column (5.54).

   * SHAMAN CARDS: Special capabilities, such as Springfield

     Rifles or Poisoned Arrows for example, will give appropriate

     DRMs where applicable.


7.32 RESOLUTION: The result each player obtains on the Battle

Table is the number of BPs lost by his opponent. Use the BP

markers to indicate the reduced strengths of each War Party

and/or Column.


Example: A War Party of five Teton Sioux BPs, led by Crazy Horse,

attacks a Column of ten BPs, commanded by Henry Sibley. The

Indian gains DRMs of '3' for Crazy Horse's Combat rating and -2

for attacking at 1-2 odds. The Indians are attacking so they so

not use their tribal Battle Rating. The Indian player rolls a

'4', modified to a '5', so the Column loses one BP. The US gains

a DRM of '+1', for Sibley's Combat ability, and +2 for their 2-1

Strength advantage. The US rolls a '3', modifies to a '6', so the

Indian player also loses one BP. Neither player gains any VPs

since losses were equal.


7.33 THE SPOILS OF WAR: There are no "winners" or "losers" in

these battles. No one retreats.


   * The US earns one VP in any battle in which it was the

     attacker and the Indians suffered greater BP losses. No VPs

     are earned by the US when he is the defender.

   * The Indian earns one VP for each US BP eliminated that

     exceeds Indian losses in that battle. This is regardless if

     the Indian player is the attacker or defender. If attacking

     another Indian player, the side with fewer losses gains one

     VP. If losses are equal, no VPs are gained by either side.


7.34 LIMITS: A given target may be attacked only once in each

Round. However, the same target may be attacked by the same or

another player in a subsequent Round.


7.4 ATTACKING VILLAGES: An attack on a Village is similar to

attacking a War Party except that is possible that a Village will

have '0' BPs since that Tribe's BPs may be away with a War Party.

In that case, substitute a +6 DRM to the attacker's DR for the

normal Odds DRM. The defenseless Village player does not roll at

all since he cannot inflict losses, even if he has a Chief in the

Village at the time of the attack.


   If attacking the Village of an Inactive Tribe, the Village

defends with all BPs and Chiefs. No Evasion or Ambush is allowed.

The Inactive Tribe does not earn VPs.


7.41 DEVASTATION: The results of a Column attack on a Village can

be different than a Battle as follows:


   * All multiple "BP losses" are treated as Devastation losses

     to the Survival capability of the Tribe. A Tribe loses one

     BP and places a "Devastated -#" marker on the Village equal

     to the number of BPs eliminated in excess of one, up to a -3

     maximum for the marker. A loss of one BP results only in the

     loss of one BP with no Devastation.

   * If an "ALL" result occurs, all BPs and Chiefs present in the

     Village are eliminated and the Village has a "Devastated -3"

     marker placed on it.

   * If the Village has zero BPs in it, then it takes all losses

     as Devastation Points up to a maximum of three.


   Devastation does not apply to a Village being attacked by

Indians. All losses are taken by BPs present in the Village with

any excess being ignored.


7.42 EXTINCTION: If an attack eliminates all of the BPs of

Village, it is eliminated and the Tribe/Village becomes Extinct

unless it has a War Party on the map.


7.5 CAMPAIGNING: There was actually relatively little fighting in

the 40+ years of continual warfare, as Tribes, found it easier to

simply avoid combat. The US commanders quickly realized this, and

much of their strategy devolved to relentless pursuit designed to

wear down the enemy. Many Tribes that surrendered did so not

because they had been beaten, but because they were exhausted.

The Indians, however, were sometimes quite successful in drawing

unwary, overly aggressive commanders into ambushes.


7.51 EVASION: Evasion may be attempted only by an Indian player,

and only by a Tribe defending against possible attack -- not one

that is attacking. Whenever any Indian target is attacked by a

Column, it may avoid battle by Evasion. Pursuit and Ambush may

occur as a result of Evasion, and it is possible that, in evading

Columns, Tribes will lose BPs to Evasion Attrition. All Evasion

attempts occur before battle. The Indian player may even attempt

Evasion in the midst of Column Coordination attack attempts



7.52 EVASION CAPABILITY: To attempt Evasion, the Indian player

determines the Evasion Capability of his War Party or Village by



   * the Tribe's Evasion rating, plus

   * the highest Evasion rating of any Chief with that War Party

     or Village, plus

   * +1 if the Tribe has Guerilla capabilities and is in a

     Mountain Area, plus

   * +3 is a War Party, plus

   * -1 if Winter Campaigning is in effect (9.2HH).


   He then makes an Evasion DR. If the Evasion DR is < to their

Evasion Capability, the Tribe evades the attack. However, if the

Evasion DR is a Natural '0', the evader loses one BP to Evasion

Attrition. There is no actual "movement"; the Evasion simply

cancels the battle unless the US decides to Pursue (7.53). If the

Evasion DR is > their Evasion Capability, the attempt fails and

battle occurs.


7.53 PURSUIT: If the Tribe successfully Evades, the US may

attempt to Pursue. He first determines his Column's Pursuit

Capability by totalling:


   * his Column's Speed (5.32), plus

   * + 1 if the Commander has Guerilla capabilities and is in a

     Mountain Area, plus

   * -2 if Winter Campaigning is in effect (9.2HH).


   He then makes a Pursuit DR. If the Pursuit DR is < the Pursuit

Capability, the Column has caught the Tribe. There is no actual

"movement"; the units remain in the same Area. However, the

Indian player may attempt an Ambush (7.54). If the Pursuit DR is

> the Pursuit Capability, Pursuit was unsuccessful and there is

no battle.


7.54 AMBUSH: If Pursuit was successful, the Indian player may

stand and accept battle or, if he has BPs present, roll for

possible Ambush. First, he determines his Ambush Capability by



   * the Tribe's Aggression rating, plus

   * the highest Aggression rating of any Chief present, plus

   * +1 if Tribe has Guerilla capabilities and is in a Mountain



   He then makes an Ambush DR. If the Ambush DR is < the Ambush

Capability, they have Ambushed the pursuing Column and may add +3

to their battle DR. However, they are still considered to be the

defenders. If the Ambush DR is > the Tribe's Ambush Capability,

the Ambush does not work and battle occurs normally unless the

Ambush DR is a '9'. A '9' Ambush DR means that the Evasion is

successful and no attack can occur but the Indians lose one BP to



7.55 VILLAGES WITH NO BPs: A Village with no BPs present which

loses a BP due to evasion attrition suffers level 1 Devastation

instead of the BP loss.


Example: It is Turn 5 (1871). a Column containing 11 BPs and

Field Artillery Piece led by George Crook (2 2G 0) has a Speed of

'2'. It attacks a Commanche War Party in Texas, containing five

BPs led by Quanah Parker (3 1 1). The Indian wants to evade. His

Evasion Capability is '6'; the Tribe's '2', plus Quanah's '1',

plus the automatic '3' for a War Party. He rolls a '4' which is <

his Evasion Capability so the Commanches have evaded without

losing any BPs to Evasion Attrition. Crook, though, intends to

Pursue. The Column's Pursuit Capability is '3'; '2' for its Speed

plus '1' for Crook's Guerilla capability (in Texas, which is a

Mountain State). The US rolls a '2', which is < the 3 Pursuit

Capability, so Crook has caught up with Quanah. The Commanche,

though, are looking to Ambush Crook. Their Ambush Capability is

'3', '2' for the Tribe, '1' for Quanah. Now, the Indian player

rolls a '9'. The Ambush is foiled, but the Commanche still escape

through Evasion. In doing so, however, they lose one BP to

Evasion Attrition.


7.6 MASSACRES: Massacres may occur three ways:


   * a successful Attack/Raid against a Mission is an automatic

     Massacre (6.45).

   * War Party attacks against any Resource (7.25).

   * US attacks on Indian Villages (7.62).


7.61 OCCURANCE: Only the attacker can cause a Massacre ... never

the defender. Massacres never occur (in game terms) when Indians

fight Indians.


   The destruction of Custer's attacking 7th Cavalry was a

disaster. However it was not a Massacre in the sense we are using

in the game. Annihilation does not define a Massacre; wanton

destruction of "non-combatants" by or against US forces does.


7.62 Vs VILLAGES: A Massacre may occur when US troops attack an

Indian Village. If the Battle Table result indicates a possible

Massacre (the letter "M" plus a number), the US notes the

Aggression Rating of his Commander(s); 5.42. If his Aggression

Rating is > the "M" #, a Massacre has occurred.


Example: A Column, under John Chivington (0 1 3), enters and

attacks an undefended Cheyenne Village. The Indian player does

not get to use the Battle Table, but the US player does, with a

+6 DRM for the undefended Village attack. The US rolls a natural

'8', for a total of '14'. As Chivington has a '3' Aggression

Rating, the "3[M2]" result is also a Massacre. Place a

"Devastated, -3" marker on the Village and a Massacre marker in

the Area.


7.63 NEGATIVE AGGRESSION: If a Commander with a negative (-1)

Aggression Rating is leading the Column, a Massacre may never

take place unless he combined with another Commander whose

combined Aggression rating is sufficient to cause a Massacre.


7.64 CONSEQUENCES: Regardless of who caused it, place a

"Massacre" marker in any Area in which a Massacre occurs. The

only effect of a Massacre is that it will reduce the number of

points available for Statehood determination (10.21). Massacres

do NOT produce BP losses nor do they effect State Maintenance

(10.3). Massacre markers are removed at the end of the Turn along

with all other yellow markers.


7.7 DESTROYING MISSIONS: The presence of a Mission (9.2N)

prevents Villages in that Area from launching War Parties or

Relocating, but doubles the SPs of each Village in that Area.

Despite its benefits, an Indian player may attempt to eliminate a

Mission by Raid or a Mission War Party.


7.71 MISSION WAR PARTY: If a Raid against a Mission is not

possible (either because no Raiders are in range or he lacks the

necessary Raid card), an Indian player may try to eliminate the

Mission by raising a Mission War Party (even though Missions

forbid War Parties). To "raise" a Mission War Party, he adds the

Aggression rating of any Tribe he controls in the Mission's Area

to the Aggression ratings of all Chief(s) of that Tribe available

in that Turn and makes a Mission War Party DR. If the Mission War

Party DR is < the Aggression total, that Mission is destroyed and

the marker is removed from the map. If the Mission War Party DR

is > the Aggression total, the War Party fails to form and that

Village is "Finished" for that Turn.


7.72 PEACE CHIEF: A Mission War Party may not be raised of the

Tribe has a Peace Chief (9.2Q), but the Tribe may still Raid.


7.8 LEADER CASUALTIES: Commanders and Chiefs are killed only when

their entire Column or War Party/Village is eliminated unless the

Shaman Medicine Card (9.2Z) produces a chieftain casualty.


7.81 PRISON: Chiefs are placed in the "In Prison" box of the map

if they are available during the Turn their Tribe is forced to go

On Reservation (8.14). If a Tribe voluntarily goes On Reservation

(8.12), the US may select any one Chief of that Tribe who is

available that Turn and place him in Prison. The US may decline

such action or impose it unilaterally after the Tribe agrees to

go On Reservation.


7.82 PAROLE: Chiefs In Prison may return to play by the "Parole"

Shaman Card (9.2P). They are returned to their Village regardless

whether it is still On Reservation or has left the Reservation

and is back in the game.


   Leader losses are rare since they are already built into the

game in the form of the Commander limitation and the Chief Turn






   The Reservation System was the main method the US government

used to "pacify" the Indians. The theory was to give them their

own lands, secured by Treaty, which would be inviolable and

provide the Indians with sufficient life support. That none of

this worked then -- and still doesn't really work today -- is

self evident. In all fairness, we should add that many of the

people involved were truly trying to help the Indians, just as a

depressing number of Indians didn't give the system a chance.

Then again, even more "white eyes" were far too anxious to make

as much money from a system that, even given a chance, was about

two levels short of genocide.


8.1 GOING ON RESERVATION: A Tribe goes On Reservation:


   * automatically whenever the Indian player controlling it

     "signs a Treaty" with the US (8.11-12).

   * in the Survival Phase of any Turn in which a Village of an

     active Tribe which is reduced to one-half or less of its

     original strength fails a Survival DR (8.14).


8.11 TREATIES: At any time during the Card Play Phase of the

Turn, an Indian player and the US may reach an agreement to place

a Tribe (or a Village of a multi-Village Tribe) On Reservation.

The Indian player may do this only with one or more of the Tribes

in his hand; the US may offer a Treaty to any Tribe which any

Indian player controls that Turn. The "treaty" consists of the

Tribe going On Reservation in return for the US giving that

Indian player a one-time payment in VPs from the following



   * The first five VPs awarded to the Indian player are free.

     They do not come from any source.

   * Any amount of VPs over five come from the US player's

     personal total. These are deducted from the US player's VP

     amount and added to the Indian player's amount. The US

     player may not give away more of his own VPs than he had at

     the start of the turn.


   It is possible for a treaty to involve a payment of zero VPs

as well. In tournaments it is suggested that the maximum amount

of VPs awarded to the Indian player not exceed ten VPs per



   The VPs awarded to the Indians can be thought of in the

following light. The first five VPs represent that which the

Indians already possess, namely large tracts of land. Any VPs

beyond the first five represent additional concessions from

the US government over and above the necessary supplies needed

for survival on the reservation (money, additional food and

supplies, etc.). The treaty involving zero VPs is essentially

an ultimatum to go on or return to the reservation or else be

destroyed, which was the most common type of treaty given

towards the end of the Indian Wars.


8.12 TERMS: When the Treaty is agreed upon, the Indian player

places the Tribe (and its Village) in the "On Reservation" box,

adding to the VPs he has earned for that Turn. He should also

note the Treaty terms and the Area occupied by the Tribe when it

went On Reservation that Turn. The Tally Sheet on the back page

of the Rule Book should be photocopied and used to this purpose.


8.13 CORRUPTION: Treaties were often less than binding documents.

"White man speaks with forked tongue" is not a total Hollywood

fabrication. If, at any point during the remainder of the Turn,

any player plays an Agency Corruption Shaman Card, the players

for all Tribes that voluntarily, and previously, went On

Reservation that Turn, make an Agency Corruption DR to determine

the effect it has on their VPs. An additional Agency Corruption

card played later in that Turn will have similar results, but the

Indian player can never lose more VPs for that Treaty than he

originally earned. An Agency Corruption DR need not be made for

those Tribes that went "On Reservation" for zero VPs.


8.14 FORCED ON RESERVATION: In the Survival Phase, all Active

Tribes that have been reduced to half or less of their original

strength printed on their Tribal Cards/Villages (by any means)

must check to see if they are forced to go On Reservation. If

their Reservation DR < the Tribe's Survival Rating, the Tribe

goes On Reservation.


Example: The Mimbres Apache with an initial strength of seven BPs

must make a Reservation DR if their 'strength drops' to '3' or

less; they would go On Reservation with a DR of "0" or "1". The

Klamath with an initial strength of two BPs would need to make a

Reservation DR if reduced to one BP. A Reservation DR < 5 would

put them On Reservation.


8.15 OUT OF PLAY: Cards for Tribes On Reservation are placed in

the On Reservation box. They are out of play until that Tribe

leaves the Reservation (8.2). Remove any Village marker, whose

Tribal Card is On Reservation, from the map (retaining its

present BP marker). Place it in the On Reservation box.


8.16 ATTACKS NA: Tribes On Reservation may not be attacked by

either side. They may not designated for any Shaman Card action

except from those Shaman Cards which specifically deal with

Tribes on the Reservation.


8.17 VICTORY POINTS: The US player during the Turn that a Tribe

goes On Reservation receives two VPs. The current US player loses

one VP for every Tribe that goes Off Reservation (8.2) because of

Agency Corruption or Massacre. These points can be gained or lost

for a single Tribe any number of times.


8.18 MULTI-VILLAGE TRIBES: The three multi-Village Tribes each

have special "On Reservation" cards. Whenever one of their

Villages goes On Reservation, and there are still other Villages

in play, use this card to place that Village in the On

Reservation box. If the Reservation Unrest Shaman Card (9.2X) is

played (allowing a Tribe to leave the Reservation), all Villages

of that Tribe may return to play.


8.2 LEAVING THE RESERVATION: Tribes may leave the Reservation and

have their cards placed back into the Deck (for later, possible

activation) following a US-inflicted Massacre (8.21), or loss of

their Treaty VPs following an Agency Corruption Shaman Card play

(8.22), or a "Reservation Unrest" Shaman Card play (8.23).


8.21 MASSACRE: Whenever a US-inflicted Massacre occurs, the

Indian player locates all On Reservation Tribes from that Area

(when they went On Reservation; 8.12) and makes an Unrest DR for

each. If the Unrest DR is < the Tribe's Aggression total (that of

the Tribe plus any available Chiefs excluding those In Prison),

that Tribe leaves the Reservation. If the Unrest DR is > the

Tribe's Aggression total, it remains On Reservation.


8.22 AGENCY CORRUPTION: Following play of an Agency Corruption

Shaman Card, all Tribes (or Villages from multi-Village Tribes)

entering the Reservation previously during that Turn must make an

Agency Corruption DR and apply it to the Agency Corruption Table

on the Shaman Card. The affected Tribe will leave the Reservation

if the Agency Corruption DR causes the loss of all of the VPs

earned by the Tribe when it signed its Treaty to go on the

Reservation that Turn. A Tribe that went on the Reservation for

zero VPs by Treaty does not have to be rolled for, it goes off

the Reservation automatically. Regardless of the Corruption DR,

the Indian player cannot lose more VPs than he earned by signing

the Treaty. Agency Corruption effects are cumulative. If VP

losses from multiple Agency Corruption cards played in the same

Turn equal or exceed those gained by Treaty, the Village leaves

the Reservation.


   When playing the Solitaire Game all Tribes/Villages On

Reservation must make an Agency Corruption DR when the Agency

Corruption Shaman Card is played by the Indian side. In this case

a DR of '9' causes the Tribe/Village to leave the Reservation,

any other result has no effect.


8.23 RESERVATION UNREST: If a Reservation Unrest Shaman Card is

played, that player shuffles the Tribal Cards On Reservation,

draws one, and places it back in the Tribal Deck (8.24). During

the last turn of the game, this Shaman Card must be the first

card played (or discarded) by its owner(s) in his normal Round. A

player with two such cards may choose which to play (or discard)



8.24 RETURN TO PLAY: A Tribe that has left the Reservation has

its card placed back in the Deck of available Tribes; it does not

become active until its card is pulled during the normal

distribution of Tribal cards. However, the Village is immediately

placed back on the map and counts against Survival, etc. It

returns to the Area from which it went onto the Reservation with

all remaining BPs (8.12).





   According to Carl Waldman's "Encyclopedia of Native American

Tribes", a tribal "shaman" was an individual who "interprets and

attempts to control the supernatural. He applies his powers to

evoke visions and to bring success in food gathering and

warfare." We have named the random events rules in honor of these

highly influential medicine men, as the settlers like to call

them. Our random events include both events that did occur during

the era or that could have occurred. Such events usually had an

impact on the participants, mostly because they could not

anticipate nor control them.


9.1 USE OF SHAMAN CARDS: Each player starts each Turn with a

number of Shaman cards based on the number of players in the game

(3.5D). Shaman cards are always dealt after shuffling the entire

deck (minus any cards that are no longer in play). Most Shaman

Cards are "events" that affect the play of everyone for that

Turn. Some cards, however -- such as the "Raid" or "Rampage" --

dictate what that player may do that Round ... and only in that

Round. Each player starts his Round, as it proceeds around the

table, by either discarding or playing a Shaman Card during the

Shaman Card Play segment of the Round.


9.11 DISCARDING: A player who Discards a Shaman Card in his Round

may NOT do anything else. His Round is finished. By opting to

Discard the card rather than having it take effect, he has

forfeited his chance to perform any Operation (Action) in that

Round. A Discarded Shaman Card is shuffled back into the main



9.12 PLAYING: Playing a Shaman Card entitles that person to

proceed with operations during the Round after applying the Event

listed on the card. A Played Shaman Card is returned to the main

deck to be shuffled unless it is specifically listed as a one-

time-use card.


9.13 NO EVENT: A Player may "play" a Shaman Card that has no

effect on play at that moment. For example, playing an Agency

Corruption Card when there are no Tribes on the Reservation and

no Peace Policy in effect doesn't affect the game. The player may

still conduct his Operations even though the card he played had

no effect. Such a card is assumed to be "No Event". Note: A

Player cannot treat a card as a "No Event" if it does have an

effect on play at the moment, merely to avoid either Playing

(9.12) or Discarding (9.11) it.


9.14 IGNORED CARDS: Certain cards may or must be Ignored by

either the Indians or US as indicated on the bottom of the card.

A card which is Ignored is essentially being played with no

effect. This differs from No Event cards (9.13) in that the

conditions applicable to the card may be in effect, but can be

Ignored by the side stated on the card. Note: A Player cannot

treat a card as Ignored if it does apply to the side playing it,

merely to avoid either Playing (9.12) or Discarding (9.11) it.


9.15 DURATION: The Card Phase is over as soon as the last Shaman

card held by a player is either Played or Discarded. Shaman cards

that affect the course of the entire Turn (or game) should be

left in view for reference as long as they are in effect.


9.2 SHAMAN CARD EVENTS: The Shaman Cards are described here in

greater detail than space will allow on the cards themselves.

Note that some cards have been altered since publication of the

game and so the description will be different from that on the

card. Never the less, the descriptions listed here take

precedence over those on the cards where they differ. The number

of each card type in the deck is listed in brackets [#] following

its title.


A. AMERICAN CIVIL WAR [1]: When this card is played, the ACW is

in effect for that Turn. It is playable only in the Campaign Game

and should be removed from the Shaman Deck during the Basic Game.

The player holding this card must play it as his first Played

Shaman Card in the Turn if he is going to play it. If he is going

to Discard it, he may hold the ACW card until later. This card

can not be treated as No Event or be Ignored by either side. If

the card is not played by Turn 5, it is automatically in effect

at the start of Turn 6. After this card is played, it is

permanently removed from the deck. The ACW has the following



   * All Active Commanders are put in a cup and only half are

     randomly redrawn. Half of the US BPs and Artillery markers

     are removed, starting with those in the Reserve and then

     going from Column to Column on the map. The US may then re-

     deploy his on-map Columns as he sees fit. He may freely

     assign his remaining Commanders to his Columns, putting the

     unassigned ones in the Reserve

   * No RR markers may be placed that Turn.

   * New Mexico and Arizona may not apply for Statehood that


   * No Columns may be played in Texas or New Mexico that Turn.

     However any pre-existing Columns in either Area may react to

     Indian actions in their own respective Areas.

   * Starting next Turn, the new US BPs received each Turn = the

     roll of six dice.


B. ANY TRIBE MAY RAID [1]: The Indian player playing this card

may attempt a Raid (6.4) from any of his unfinished Villages,

even one whose Tribe is not a Raider. If using a non-Raider

Tribe, it is assumed to have a Raid rating of 2. The US player

must Ignore this card.


C. ATROCITY AND REPRISAL [1]: A local family has been brutally

killed and reprisals are in order. Such savagery usually led to

rash actions in the name of revenge. This card ups the VP ante

for attacks done by the player this Round in the name of revenge,

providing these attacks are against a Tribe or Column with a

Chief or Commander with an Aggression rating or 2 or more. If an

attack fails to generate any VPs, the attacker is penalized one

VP. A player is not required to attack in the Round that this

card is played and if no attacks occur in the Round or the Tribe

or Column attacked proves to be inactive or without a Chief or

Commander with an Aggression rating of 2 or more, then the card

is Ignored.


   In the Solitaire Game the side played must attack a Tribe or

Column with a Chief or Commander with an Aggression rating of 2

or more. If unable to do so, then the card is Ignored.


D. BAD BLOOD [1]: The player playing this card may designate any

one Tribe (his own, another player's, or an Inactive one) as

having "Bad Blood". If the selected Tribe is Inactive or Finished

there is no effect. Otherwise, the player controlling the

selected Tribe must immediately attack any War Party or Village

of his choice which is not among its listed "friends", in or

adjacent to an Area in which he has a War Party. If this card is

played on another player's unfinished Tribe, that Tribe must make

an immediate out-of-Round attack, even if it must deploy a War

Party from his Village to do this. On that player's next Round,

he is considered to have conducted his Operation though he may

still play or discard a Shaman Card. Also his Tribe is considered

to have conducted one of its two allowed Actions per Turn. If the

target's losses exceed the attacker's, the attacker doubles the

earned Coup Points (VPs). If the player played this card on

another player's Tribe, he may still perform an Operation in that

Round after the other player is finished with his attack. US

player must Ignore this card.


E. BAD WEATHER [2]: Lack of rain or too much snow makes game

scarce. Place a Bad Weather marker in any one Area not already

containing a Weather marker. Bad Weather decreases the Area's

Survival Point Rating by two.


F. BLOOD LUST [1]: An Indian player may designate any one of his

Villages or one from another Indian player's as having "Blood

Lust" this Round if it has a Chief. Place the Blood Lust marker

on that Village. That Village adds two to its combat DRs and

Aggression ratings for the rest of the Turn. However, it may not

use Evasion for the remainder of the Turn. This applies to all

War Parties from the Village as well. If this card is played on

one of the player's own Tribes, he does not have to attack with

it that Round, though he has the option to do so. If this card is

played on another player's Tribe, that Tribe must make an

immediate out-of-Round attack, even if it must deploy a War Party

from its Village to do this. On that player's next Round, he is

considered to have conducted his Operation though he may still

play or discard a Shaman Card. Also his Tribe is considered to

have conducted one of its two allowed Actions per Turn. If the

Tribe is finished there is no effect, except that the Tribe still

has a +2 DRM and cannot use Evasion for the rest of the Turn. The

player who played this card on another player's Tribe may still

perform an Operation that Round after the other player is

finished with his attack. The US must Ignore this card.


G. BUFFALO HUNTERS [3]: Perhaps the greatest threat to the

lifestyle of the Plains Indians was the wanton, wholesale

slaughter of the buffalo herds for hides by white hunters. These

hunters were usually among the leading edge of migrants into the

Territories and after they cleared out the herds in an area,

would usually move on the another area and start their grisly

work all over again. The buffalo not only provided Tribes with

food, clothing, and many of their basic needs, but also held a

central quasi-religious position in Indian life. Whoever plays

this card places a "Buffalo Skull" marker in any Area containing

a printed Buffalo icon to reduce that Area's Survival Level by

two. The number of Buffalo Skull markers that can be placed in an

Area is limited by the following factors:


   * A Buffalo Skull marker can not be placed in an Area that has

     no positive Survival Points at the time of placement.

   * Buffalo Skull markers may not be placed in the Indian

     Territories until after the play of the Oklahoma Land Rush

     (Territorial Problems) Shaman Card.


   Once placed, Buffalo Skull markers are never removed. After

all 16 Buffalo Skull markers in the counter set have been placed

on the map, treat this card as No Event.


H. AGENCY CORRUPTION [2]: The Bureau of Indian Affairs was a

remarkably corrupt government department whose agents were often

even worse. When this card is played, the player may either

cancel the Peace Policy effect forbidding the US from attacking

Villages, or force all Tribes that previously entered the

Reservation that Turn to roll on the Agency Corruption Table

(8.13). If a Tribe consequently loses all the VPs it gained by

Treaty that Turn, it leaves the Reservation. Tribes who entered

the Reservation that Turn for 0 VPs by Treaty are not rolled for

on the Table, they automatically leave the Reservation. A Tribe

never loses more VPs to Corruption than it gained by Treaty. If

the Reform Movement Shaman Card is in effect at the time this

card is played, there is a -2 DRM to the Agency Corruption Table

DR. However the Reform Movement effects are cancelled for the

rest of the Turn and if the other Agency Corruption card is

played on a later Round, it is not affected.


DR:            VP Loss:

 0             None

1-3            One

4-5            Two

6-7            Three

 8             Four

 9             Five


   If playing the Solitaire Game, the US must cancel the Peace

Policy; the Indians must make a Corruption DR for each

Tribe/Village On Reservation. If the Corruption DR is '9', the

Tribe/Village leaves the Reservation. Any other result is no

effect. If the Reform Movement is in effect when the Agency

Corruption card is played, the Reform Movement is cancelled but

no Corruption DRs are made. However, in a later Round of the same

Turn if the other Agency Corruption card is played, then the

Indians must make Corruption DRs for the Tribes/Villages On



   If at the time when this card is played there is no Peace

Policy in effect and there are no Tribes/Villages On Reservation,

then treat this card as No Event.


I. FEDERALES [1]: Mexico responds to Indian raids and increases

protection of her villages and haciendas. This card may be

immediately played (out of turn) in response to an Indian Raid

into Mexico. It cancels any VPs earned by the Raiding Tribe for

that Raid and ends all raiding and relocation attempts into

Mexico for the rest of the Turn. When play gets to the player who

played this card, he is considered to have played his Shaman Card

for that Round for purposes of Rules 4.4B in his own card play

Round and does not play another. However he may still conduct an

Operation. If this card is played at any other time, it is

treated as No Event. If playing the Solitaire Game, this card is

not used and is removed from the deck.


J. GATLING GUNS [1]: The Gatling was the forerunner of the

machine gun and, when it worked (it tended to overheat and jam),

it was a deadly killer. This card is treated as No Event until

the Turn after the ACW. Once played in a Turn after the ACW, the

US may choose one Gatling marker as one of his Artillery pieces

in every Turn. Once played with effect, this card remains face up

and out of play.


K. GHOST TOWNS [1]: Choose any one non-Lode Mine in play and make

a Mine Played Out DR. If that DR - 2 is > the Mine's Resource

Point Value, it is permanently removed from play. Whenever a Mine

is removed, the US must remove either one Settlement or reduce

one Town from that Area to three Settlements. No VPs are granted

to either side for the removal of the Mine and Settlement/Town by

this card. If playing the Solitaire Game, the US rolls for choice

of the lowest-rated Mines; the Indians roll for choice of

highest-rated Mines. If no non-Load Mines are in play when this

card is played, then treat it as No Event.


L. GOOD WEATHER [2]: The Good Spirit (and the sun) shines on the

land. Place a Good Weather marker in any one Area not already

containing a Weather marker. Good Weather increases the Area's

Survival Point Rating by two for the current Turn.


M. MASSIVE WINTER STORM [1]: Select any one Mountain Area not

already containing a "Good Weather" marker. Each Tribe and Column

in that Area at the instant the card is played loses one BP. A

Tribe with both a Village and a War Party(s) in the afflicted

Area, must subtract the BP loss from the War Party of its choice.

If the Tribe does not have any BPs in the Area because its War

Party(s) are in an adjacent Area, then the Village has a -1 SP

Devastation marker placed on it. The Massive Winter Storm does

not prevent a Good Weather marker from being placed in the same

Area in a later Round in that Turn.


N. MISSIONARIES [1]: Missionaries were quite prevalent in the era

immediately before that covered in the game. Many meant well,

quite a few were extremely helpful, some were a tad over-zealous,

and a few were of the Convert-or-be-damned mold. Most Tribes (but

not all; e.g., Old Joseph of the Nez Perce was a Christain by

choice) deeply resented this insistent intrusion into their life

style. Although most missions had disappeared by the 1850's, a

few remained...often to their regret and demise.


   The player playing this card may place a Mission in any Area

that has at least one Indian Village and no other Missions. If

all three Missions are already in play, he may move any one

Mission into another Area. Missions double the SPs of each

Village in their Area but prevent War Parties and Village

relocations from that Area.


O. MORMONS [1]: The Mormons had settled in Salt Lake City before

the start of the "game". They sought to create their own "state",

Deseret. Because of the religious and social practices and their

active politics under Brigham Young, they were viewed

suspiciously by both the locals and the government. The US was a

largely (if not totally) Protestant group that took its own

version of Christianity literally and seriously. It viewed the

Mormons as a possible insurrectionist threat, and when they

started to become "militant", responded in kind.


   During the next US Round in which he Plays a card, the US must

designate a Column in Utah with at least 3 BPs as the Mormon

Column by placing the Mormon marker on it. The Column must either

be a new one from the Reserve, or one already in Utah, or one On

Patrol in an adjacent Area. If none of these options are

available, the US must move its nearest Column of sufficient size

to Utah to become the Mormon Column. The move is made instantly

regardless of the distance. Each of these "designations" count as

a "Column Play". The Mormon Column may not leave Utah and may not

attack Indians or React unless attacked for the rest of the Turn.

If the US plays this card, he must designate the Mormon Column

this Round. Once Played, this card is removed from the game.


P. PAROLE [1]: All Chiefs In Prison are released. They are

immediately returned to their respective Villages regardless of

whether they are on the map or On Reservation. If no Chiefs are

In Prison, then treat this card as No Event.


Q. PEACE CHIEF [2]: Tribes often had several chiefs at the same

time to whom the members looked for advice and leadership, one of

whom was sometimes a leader who favored peace with the whites

under any circumstances. When this card is played, the player

playing it may designate any one Active Village of another Indian

player as having a Peace Chief. Before doing so, he may ask all

players if a specific Tribe is active until one is revealed. The

first Active Tribe revealed must be marked with a Peace Chief

marker for the rest of the Turn or until a Tribal Unrest Card is

played (whichever comes first). A Peace Chief's Tribe/Village may

not attack Resources or Columns, although it may Raid. It may

send a War Party against Indian targets. The US may not attack a

Peace Chief's Village although it may attack and React to War

Parties from that Village. In the Two Player Version Game it may

be played on any Active Tribe of the Indian player. In the

Solitaire Game it may only be played on the Tribe activated on

the current Round. The US must Ignore this card.


R. PEACE POLICY [1]: Several times, and specifically under

President Ulysses S. Grant, the government attempted to put in

place what they called a "Peace Policy", in which non-military

solutions were actively sought. The Peace Policy was greeted with

some enthusiasm (mostly in the East) and more scorn (mostly out

West). It came to an end with the assassination of General Canby

in the Modoc War. For the remainder of the Turn in which this

card has been played, Columns (both single and combined) with an

Aggression rating < 3 may not attack a Village except when

Reacting to a Relocation attempt. Columns (both single and

combined) with an Aggression rating of 3 or more may attack a

Village. All Columns may still attack and React to War Parties.


   If an Indian-led Massacre occurs, or an Agency Corruption card

cancelling the Peace Policy, or the ACW card is played, the Peace

Policy is cancelled for the remainder of the Turn. This card is

treated as No Event while the ACW is in progress.


S. PUBLIC OUTRAGE [1]: Indian depravations outrage the public and

spur the government to effect legislation to support an increased

military presence. If this card is played and a Massacre by

Indians has occurred previously in that Turn, the US immediately

receives in his Reserve additional BPs equal to a DR. If no

Indian-led Massacre has occurred in the Turn when this card is

played, treat it as No Event. This card must be Ignored by the

Indian player(s).


T. RAID [5]: An Indian player may play this card to attempt a

Raid (6.4) with any of his unfinished Raider Tribes against any

Resource or Mission in the same or adjacent Area. He may also

raid into Mexico (6.43) if the Raider Tribe is capable of doing

so on its Tribal Card. If played the Raid becomes the Indian

player's Operation (Action) for that Round. If the Indian player

has no Raider Tribes when this card is played, then treat it as

No Event. The US must Ignore this card.


U. RAILROAD SKIMMING SCANDAL [1]: Given the rather free-

wheeling unregulated capitalism of the era, the large number of

stock swindlers, skimming schemes, and other such nefarious

activities attached to railroading in the 1800's is not

surprising. While the "little guy" was the one who took it

directly on the chin, eventually the government suffered ... lack

of trust, public outcry, throw the scoundrels out, etc.. The

player playing this card (even the US player) removes one RR

marker from any Area on the map. Broken RR markers may be used to

satisfy the removal. If there are no RR markers on the map when

this card is played, then treat it as No Event.


V. RAMPAGE [2]: An Indian player may play this card to make two

attacks with one War Party against different targets in the same

Area. The two attacks must occur in this Round but only count as

one Operation (Action), so a newly activated Tribe would not be

finished despite making two attacks. A Tribal Alliance (6.7)

combined War Party could also be used but only during its second

Operation as a group (the first Operation would need the Tribal

Alliance card to form the combined War Party). The US must Ignore

this card.


W. REFORM MOVEMENT [1]: Several well-meaning religious groups and

non-sectarian citizens tried to put into place a Reform Movement,

somewhat similar to the Peace Policy. Its effects were often

ameliorated by events out of control of the movement's founders,

although the movement did much to form public opinion. For the

remainder of the Turn, Columns (single or combined) with a

Commander(s) whose Aggression rating is < 2 may not attack a

Village (though they can attack a War Party). However, relocating

Villages may always be attacked in Reaction by any Column. Also

the first Agency Corruption Card played while the Reform Movement

is in effect has the Agency Corruption DR modified by -2. The

Reform Movement is cancelled by play of the ACW card, the

occurrence of an Indian-led Massacre while it is in effect, or

immediately after the play of the first Agency Corruption card

after the Reform Movement has been played. Should an Agency

Corruption card be played after the cancellation the Reform

Movement, its DR is not modified. Once played, display this card

until cancelled or the Turn ends. This card has no effect during

the ACW.


   In the Solitaire Game, the Reform Movement negates the rolling

of Agency Corruption DRs when a Agency Corruption card is played

by the Indians, instead of giving a DRM.


X. RESERVATION UNREST [2]: [The "Ghost Dance" Card] The player

playing this card shuffles the On Reservation Deck, draws one

Tribal Card, and places it back in the Active Deck. The Village

is returned to the Area from which it entered the Reservation. In

the last Turn of the game (Turn 7 of the Basic Game or Turn 8 of

the Campaign Game), this card must be the first card played or

discarded by the player holding it. If he has both of these

cards, they must be the first two cards he plays or discards. If

there are no Tribes/Villages on the Reservation when this card is

played, then treat it as No Event.


   In the Solitaire Game, these cards are played as they come up

in the normal play of the deck, even in the final Turn of the



Y. SCOUTS [1]: Several Tribes provided Scouts to the US,

including the Crow, Pawnee, and even the Apache. If this card is

played by a player with one of those Tribes in his hand, he may

choose to Scout for the US this Turn. Place the Scout marker on

the Village (player's choice in the case of the Apache) supplying

the Scouts and add one VP to his total. The US may add one to the

Speed of all of his Columns in or adjacent to the Scout Village's

Area. That Village may not Relocate, attack, or be attacked by

the US for the rest of the Turn. In addition, any War Parties

that the Scout Village has on the map are immediately returned to

the Village (which will cause it to become finished) and the US

may not React to these returning War Parties. US and Indian

players without Scout Tribes must Ignore this card.


Z. SHAMAN MEDICINE [1]: When played for any one Village (by any

player, even the US), the braves and chiefs in that Village have

been told by their shaman that they cannot be killed. For the

remainder of that Turn (or until the Village suffers a loss of

BPs in battle) add two to all Battle DRs for that Village and add

one to the Village's Aggression Rating. However once the Village

loses a BP in Battle, make a separate DR for each of its Chiefs

in the battle. An "even" DR kills a Chief and removes him

permanently from the game. The Village is not required to make an

attack that Round, though it may. This card also applies to all

War Parties from the Village and to Tribal Alliance War Parties

that the Village is a part of. The US may Ignore this card at his



AA. SMALLPOX [1]: By the 1850's, smallpox, as an epidemic threat

to Indian life, had greatly diminished. However, tell that to the

Blackfoot, whose Confederacy was pretty much destroyed by the

disease during four separate epidemics, two of which occurred

during the time frame of the game. The player playing this card

may choose any one Village (his own, another player's, or an

inactive one) to suffer a Smallpox epidemic. Having chosen the

Village, make a DR to determine the outcome.


DR:   Outcome:                                    

0-4   Village is Finished. Flip the Village marker.

5-8   Village is Finished and loses one BP.

 9    Village is Finished and loses two BPs.


   Smallpox does not cause BP losses among War Parties elsewhere

on the map, even in the same Area as the Village. If the BP

losses from Smallpox exceed the BPs present in the Village, the

excess is ignored. War Parties from the affected Village must be

immediately recalled after the play of this card.


BB. SPRINGFIELD RIFLE [1]: The invention of breech-loading

weapons with extended range greatly improved the combat

capability of the Army. The Indians often seriously reconsidered

any actions that would enable the Army to bring them into play.

As soon as this card is played, add one to all US DRs on the

Battle Table for the rest of the game. This card may not be

played prior to Turn 3. Once played, this card is removed from

the deck and displayed as a reminder.


CC. THE TELEGRAPH [1]: The invention of the telegraph was the

first branch of the Information Super Highway and greatly

improved the Army's ability to react. As soon as this card is

played, and for all subsequent Turns, Columns may react into an

adjacent Area (with a +1 DRM added to the Reaction DR). Once

played, this card is taken out of play and displayed for the rest

of the game. This card is usable only in the Campaign Game.


DD. TERRITORIAL PROBLEMS [1]: When played, one of the following

occurs, depending on whether the ACW has occurred:


   * BLOODY KANSAS: If the card is played before the ACW is in

     effect, it's Bloody Kansas time. No more Columns may be

     placed in Kansas or moved there; they're to busy chasing

     Jayhawkers. Columns In Fort must remain in Fort. This does

     not affect troops already On Patrol in Kansas which may

     attack or React to Indian actions in that Area. This event

     may occur more than once.

   * OKLAHOMA LAND RUSH: If the card is played after the ACW, the

     Indian Territories have been opened to settlement. The US

     may place Settlements and other Resources in what is now

     called Oklahoma. Buffalo Skull markers may also now be

     placed in the Area. After the Land Rush occurs, remove this

     card from play.


   If this card is played while the ACW is in effect, then it is

treated as No Event.


EE. TEXAS RANGERS [2]: The Texas Rangers were formed in 1837 to

fight Mexicans and Indians. They were only partially effective

and somewhat disorganized until the first of the great Rangers,

Captain John "Jack" Hays arrived just before the Mexican War. He

turned the Rangers into one of the most feared (sometimes by

everyone involved, friend and enemy) paramilitary forces on the

continent. If this card is played, the player playing it (even an

Indian) must instantly "attack" any one Village or War Party

(player's choice) in Texas by rolling the die. If he rolls an odd

number, that Tribe loses one BP. He must attack a Village or War

Party with BP(s) in it. If the only thing available in Texas is a

Village with zero BPs are in it, then that Village must have a -1

SP Devastation marker placed on it if an odd number is rolled. No

VPs are awarded regardless of the result. If no Indian Villages

or War Parties are in Texas when this card is played, then treat

it as No Event.


FF. TRIBAL ALLIANCES [2]: The Indian player playing this card may

combine the BPs and Chiefs of any unfinished Active Friendly

Tribe from his hand, in or adjacent to one specified Area into

one War Party (6.7). Active Tribes of other Indian players in or

adjacent to that specified Area which are friendly and unfinished

may join the Alliance War Party at the whim of their owners.

However, the player with this card will earn all VPs earned by

the War Party (which he may share with the other contributing

players, at his option) and determine which of the participating

Tribes in the Alliance War Party absorbs any BP losses. Must be

Ignored by the US.


GG. TRIBAL UNREST [2]: Young braves chafe at the restrictions of

pacifist leaders and call for a return to the War Path to sweep

the whites from their land. The player playing this card may

remove any one Peace Chief from any Tribe. If there are no Peace

Chiefs anywhere on the map when this card is played, then treat

it as No Event.


HH. WINTER CAMPAIGNING [1]: Commanders soon discovered that the

Indians were very vulnerable to the hardships of winter, and

almost any winter campaign launched against them severely

depleted their physical and emotional reserves. They also found

out, though, that Winter Campaigning had the same effect on their

own troops as well. When this card is played, for the rest of the

Turn, deduct one from all Evasion Totals, but if Evasion is

successful then the Tribe loses one BP. Deduct two from all

Pursuit Totals, but if US attempts Pursuit he loses one BP.





10.1 VICTORY POINTS: The player with the most VPs at the end of

the game wins. Players earn VPs for various actions and achieving

certain goals. Each player records his points earned as he earns

them on his Tally Sheet. It matters not which side he plays

during a given Turn; a VP is a VP even when it's a Coup Point.


10.11 US VICTORY POINTS: The player playing the US during a Turn

gains VPs for accomplishing any of the following during a Turn:


   * A sliding scale of VPs for turning a Territory into a State,

     depending on how many Indian players are in the game.


     Number of Indian Players     VPs Earned

                1                     15

                2                     10

                3                      7

                4                      6


   * 1 VP for every Battle against a War Party (not a Village) in

     which the US is the Attacker and the defending Indian player

     suffers greater BP losses (7.33).

   * 2 VPs for every Tribe that goes on the Reservation (8.17).

     For multi-Village Tribes that's 2 VPs per Village.

   * 2 VPs for completing the Transcontinental Railroad (5.241).


   The US player loses VPs as follows:


   * 1 VP for every Tribe that goes Off Reservation during his

     Turn (8.17).

   * 1 VP for every State that failed to maintain its Resource

     Level (10.31).


   He does not earn any VPs for Indian BPs lost from any other



   We have used a sliding scale simply because the number of

Shaman Cards available to an Indian player (and, concurrently,

the number of opportunities to do things) decreases as the number

of players increase. Therefore, the number of points earned for

Statehood has to be relative to what each other player can

possibly earn.


10.12 INDIAN VICTORY POINTS: Each player playing Indian Tribes

earns the following VPs:


   * 1 VP for a successful Raid (6.44).

   * 2 VPs for a successful Raid into Mexico (6.44).

   * 2 VPs for a successful War Party attack on a Settlement or

     RR marker.

   * 5 VPs for a successful War Party attack on a Town.

   * ? VPs equal to the worth of a Mine for a successful War

     Party attack on each Mine.

   * 1 VP for each US BP loss exceeding Indian BP losses in a

     Battle (7.33).

   * 1 VP for winning a Battle with other Indians (7.33).

   * ? VPs as per Treaty with the US (8.31).

   * 1 VP for supplying a Scout (9.2Y).


   The Indian Player loses:


   * 3 VPs for each Tribe under his control that becomes Extinct

     (6.66). For multi-Village Tribes that's 3 VPs per Village.

   * ? VPs, as required by the Agency Corruption Table (8.13),

     not to exceed Treaty points.


10.2 STATEHOOD: Each Territory (Area) has a Statehood Level

printed beneath its name. This is the number of Resource Points

the US must exceed in the Statehood Phase to turn that Territory

into a State. It is also the minimum number of Resource Points

the US must maintain during a Turn to avoid penalties (10.3).


10.21 RESOURCE POINTS: To determine how many "usable" Resource

Points he has in an Area, the US totals the value of all

Resources in that Area. Broke RR markers do not count. "Hit"

Mines do count. He then subtracts the number of Massacre markers

in that Area to get his adjusted total.


   If the adjusted Resource Point total exceeds the Statehood

Number of that Territory, it has become a State. Place a "State"

marker in that Territory and give the US player the number of VPs

listed in 10.11.


Example: Minnesota has a Statehood Level of '6'. At the end of

Turn 1, the US player has one Town, and three Settlements in

Minnesota, and there has been one Massacre. He therefore has

seven Resource Points, one more than the printed level. Minnesota

is now a State.


10.3 STATE MAINTENANCE: The US must maintain all the States at or

above their printed Resource Level. Texas and California have

their Resource Levels in parentheses, indicating that they are

used solely for Maintenance as they start the game as States



10.31 VP PENALTY: If, at the end of a Turn, a State has less

Resource Points than its Resource Level, the US Player loses one

VP for each such depleted State.


10.32 STATEHOOD EFFECTS: If any State has dropped below its

Resource Level that Turn, Statehood is not automatic for any

Territory seeking admission to the US. The US must make a DR < 8

for each Territory he wishes to become a State. There is a +1 DRM

for every current State that is now below its Maintenance Level.


Example: The US has two Territories applying for Statehood.

However, because two of the States are now below their

Maintenance levels, the US would need to roll a Natural "6' or

less for each one.


10.33 SEQUENCE: Determining Maintenance always occurs before

determining new States (4.6).





   The previous rules are for the four-Turn Basic Game and

presupposes that three or more people are playing. However, there

are other versions of the game.


11.1 THE CAMPAIGN GAME: The Campaign Game uses all eight Turns,

all Shaman Cards, and takes about, on the average, seven hours to

complete. Campaign Game players will find that the first two

Turns (1 and 2) are somewhat difficult for the US, as he has

little military presence. On the other hand, he has few Resources

in place, so the Indians have far fewer options to gain VPs. And

then there's the "cloud" of the American Civil War. Playing the

ACW card is most important strategically. Thus, while the

Campaign Game takes longer to complete, it does present a fuller

picture of how the situation developed. We recommend that players

not tackle this until they have gained experience with both the

rules and the various strategies available to both "sides". The

Campaign Game is particularly well suited to Solitaire play



11.11 SET UP:


A. Place all Villages in the Area listed on their marker.


B. Place Settlements as follows:


   * Four in California.

   * Two in Texas.

   * One each in Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, and Kansas.


C. Place the two "Mother Lode" Mines in California. Place the

rest of the Mine markers in a cup so they can be drawn as



D. For the first Turn (1851-55), the US draws six Commanders from

the Commander Cup. He then places three Columns anywhere on the

map--using part or all of his initial 35 BPs and one Artillery

marker. These Columns are considered "ready to play". The

remaining Commanders and BPs are placed in Reserve for later

placement during the Turn. No additional BPs are generated by DR

during Turn 1 unless required to by the play of the Public

Outrage Shaman Card.


11.12 RR MARKERS: No RR marker may be placed before the third

Turn of the game (1861-65) or during the ACW. Treat a Resource DR

of 7-9 during that period as No Effect. The first two RR markers

must be placed, one each, in Kansas and California. After that,

RR markers must be placed in or adjacent to Areas containing RR



11.2 THE TWO PLAYER GAME: Because there is no competition between

"Indians" in the two player version, the game plays much

differently. Both the four-Turn Basic Game and the eight-Turn

Campaign Game can be played using two players. The following

adjustments take place in the Two Player Game:


A. The Randomized Side Determination (3.31) is used at the

beginning of both games. However in the Basic Game after the

first Turn (Turn 4) the players just automatically switch sides

every Turn. In the Campaign Game the Randomized Side

Determination is used on every Turn except in those Turns where

one player has played the US on the two previous consecutive

Turns. On these Turns the two player automatically switch sides.


B. When choosing Initial Tribes, the Indian player may choose any

two of the groups as recommended in 3.32. For example, he may

choose the Sioux and the Apache.


C. The US player rolls for Resources and places Settlements

(5.21) only for the first twenty Shaman Cards of each Turn.


D. The US may play only one Column per Round. He may attempt

Column Coordination by rolling < the highest Speed rating of the

Columns he wishes to combine. However, if he rolls > their

highest Speed rating, the attempt fails and he may move no

Columns that Round.


E. The Indian player may send a War Party against only those

Indian Villages that are Inactive. He may not fight himself. The

targets of War Parties must still be listed as "Enemies" on their

Tribal Cards.


11.3 THE SOLITAIRE GAME: As a solitaire game, Geronimo! is of

interest mostly for its historical insight. To that end, we

recommend you use the full Campaign version here and that you

keep in mind the "historical insight" premise when coming across

any anomalies that may arise. While the Basic Game can also be

played solitaire, the player will not get a full historical

insight into the game and the US player will be harder pressed to

achieve his objectives.


   The Solitaire version requires many adjustments to the Basic

Rules. In essence, you must wear "two hats", in that the

solitaire version plays best if you assume whichever role happens

to be "up" at the time.


11.31 OBJECTIVES: There are no VPs. Any play mechanic whose sole

purpose is to award VPs (e.g., Raids vs Resources) is ignored.

The object of the game is to see how many States the US has at

the end of the eighth Turn. If there are 14 States or more, the

player has "bettered" history and the US wins. If there are less

than 14 States, the Indians have fared better than their

historical counterparts. And if it hasn't completed the

Transcontinental Railroad (5.241) by the end of Turn 6, the US

should be ashamed of itself, rethink Manifest Destiny, and assume

it has lost by Sudden Death.


11.32 GETTING STARTED: The Set-ups are the same, whether using

the four- or eight-Turn game. There are two Decks of cards from

which the player randomly draws 30 Shaman Cards and 18 Tribal



11.33 THE SHAMAN DECK: The Shaman Deck is determined anew each

Turn by shuffling the cards and using the top 30, placing the

remainder aside until the next Turn. Remove the Federales Shaman

Card from play in both the Basic and Campaign versions.


11.34 THE TRIBAL DECK: In composing the Tribal Deck, the player

always uses the Sioux, Apache, Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and

Arapaho plus 12 additional Tribes, drawn randomly. If one of the

named Tribes is unavailable, substitute another, randomly. The 18

Tribes are then shuffled so that their order of appearance is

random and unknown. Note that towards the end of the game, there

will be less than 18 Tribes left to play with, due to the other

Tribes either being On Reservation or Extinct. In this case just

shuffle all the remaining Tribal Cards.


11.35 PLAY SEQUENCE: The Sequence of play is altered as follows:


   * In Turn 1 (1851-55) the US goes first. In all other Turns,

     make a DR to determine which side goes first, odd numbers

     meaning the US, even numbers meaning the Indians.

   * The player alternates being the US and Indians with each

     Shaman Card. The sides of the Turn Marker are flipped on the

     Turn Track to indicate who's actually "going" in each Round.

   * To simulate a Round, draw a Shaman Card and then either play

     a Column or draw and activate the next Tribal Card.

   * Settlement Placement and Resource DRs apply to only the

     first twenty Shaman Cards drawn each Turn.

   * When all the Shaman Cards have been played, the Turn is

     over. This means that several Tribes, even though selected,

     will not be used.


11.36 SHAMAN CARD USAGE: You may not Discard; you must either

Play or Ignore Shaman Cards. Note that there are some Shaman

Cards that can still be Played as No Events if they lack the

prerequisites for normal play. The drawn Shaman Card applies

either to the US (if it is the US Round) or to the Tribe that you

activate (if it is the Indian Round). The following Shaman Cards

are treated differently in the Solitaire Game:


   * Tribal Alliances: If this card is drawn for an Indian Round,

     the player may "look at" the next five Tribal cards in the

     deck. Any of those Tribes that could form an alliance may be

     taken out of the deck and used to do so for that Round, the

     rest remain in place (in the to-be-drawn portion of the

     deck). Allied Tribes may take two "Actions" that Round.

   * American Civil War: The ACW is applicable only if it is

     chosen in the first 20 Shaman Cards of each Turn. If drawn

     later, it is Ignored.

   * Raids: Can only be used against Missions.

   * Shaman Medicine, Bad Blood, Blood Lust, and Rampage: These

     apply only to the Tribe drawn for that Round; they are

     Ignored in the US Round.

   * Atrocity and Reprisal only applies to the Tribe drawn, but

     may also be played during the US Round as well.

   * Ghost Town: The US rolls for the lowest-rated Mine of his

     choice; the Indians roll for the highest-rated Mine of their


   * Agency Corruption: If drawn for the US Round, cancel the

     Peace Policy. If drawn for the Indian Round, make an Agency

     Corruption DR for each Tribe On Reservation to force them


   * Peace Chief, Smallpox, Scouts: Ignore if drawn for US Round.

     Otherwise, they apply only to the Tribe activated that



11.37 TRIBAL CARD USAGE: When drawing Tribal cards, use two

separate "used" piles to note which Tribes "did nothing" for

purposes of Survival versus those who did an Operation. A Tribe

whose card is drawn gets one War Party or one action per Village.

Thus, a multi-Village Tribe may perform one Operation for each

Village in the same Round. Every War Party automatically returns

to its Village at the end of the Round.


11.38 COLUMNS USAGE: The US may play only one Column per Round.

The same Column may not be played on successive US Rounds. Use

the US Column markers to so indicate Column(s) played on the

previous US Round. Attempting Column Coordination counts as only

one play.


11.39 RULE CHANGES: There are no Treaties; all Tribes use

Reservation DRs to go On Reservation (8.14). Indians may not

attack Mines; they may attack other Resources.





   The following Optional Rules may be used in the game.


12.1 ADDITIONAL RANDOM EVENTS: This rule was originally published

on the GENERAL Vol.30 #6. It allows a player a chance to trigger

an additional Random Event in a Round that he must play a Shaman

Card for no effect. During a Round in which a player plays a

Shaman Card either as a No Event Card (9.14) or an Ignored Card

(9.13), he may make a DR on the Random Event Table below before

he conducts his Operation. The resulting Random Event may be

played during that Round as if it is an additional Shaman Card.


12.11 FREQUENCY: A player may only roll for a Random Event once

per Turn. However each player may roll for a Random Event during

a Turn so it is possible that several events may be in play

during a the course of a Turn. In the Solitaire Game, the player

may roll twice for a Random Event, once during a US Round and

once during an Indian Round.


12.12 RESTRICTIONS: A player may not roll for a Random Event in a

Round where he either Plays (9.12) or Discards (9.11) a Shaman



12.13 RESOLUTION: The Random Event is treated as if it is a

Shaman Card in that the player may Play it (9.12), Ignore it

(9.13), Discard it (9.11), or treat it as No Event (9.14). In the

event that the player Discards the Random Event, his Round is

then Finished.


DR:     Random Event:                                           

0-1     GUNRUNNERS: At various times during the Indian Wars,

        different Tribes had access to modern firearms and

        ammunition from unscrupulous traders who traded them for

        buffalo hides, horses, and stolen cattle. Place a

        Gunrunner counter on an Active Tribe of your choice. For

        the rest of the Turn that Tribe has a +1 DRM to all DRs

        on the Battle Table. This DRM also applies to a combined

        War Parties that the affected Tribe is part of. The US

        must Ignore this event.


 2      BUFFALO HUNTER CAMPAIGN: A few Tribes realized that it

        was the Buffalo Hunters who were depleting the buffalo

        herds and robbing them of their livelihood and so

        organized small war parties to seek out and destroy these

        hunters. Place a Buffalo Hunter Campaign marker in an

        Area of your choice which contains a Buffalo icon. This

        Area must have either an active Indian Village or War

        Party controlled by you in it. For the remainder of the

        Turn, Buffalo Skull markers may not be placed in that

        Area. This event does not remove any preexisting Buffalo

        Skull markers that are in the Area when the event marker

        is placed, it merely prevents the placement of new ones.

        The US must Ignore this event.


 3      TELEGRAPH LINES CUT: Once they learned about the "talking

        wires", some Tribes (like the Apache) became very

        proficient at tearing down telegraph lines and delaying

        the US Army's reaction to their actions. Place a Lines

        Cut marker in an Area of your choice which contains

        either an active Indian Village or War Party controlled

        by you. For the rest of the Turn, US Columns in adjacent

        Areas may not react into that affected Area nor may they

        react from the affected Area into adjacent Areas. If this

        event occurs before the play of the Telegraph Shaman

        Card, treat as No Event. The US must Ignore this event.


 4      SIEGE: Rarely would the Indians lay siege to a Fort

        during the Indian Wars. However, under the leadership of

        a strong Chief such as Red Cloud, these sieges could be

        surprisingly effective in tying down US forces. Place a

        Fort Siege marker on one US Column inside the Fort Box in

        an Area of your choice which contains an unfinished War

        Party controlled by you. The War Party must either be in

        the Area the Round that the siege is declared or be moved

        or placed there in a previous Round. For the remainder of

        the Turn that US Column may not change its status to "On

        Patrol" nor may it receive reinforcements from the

        Reserve. In addition, in the Survival Phase at the end of

        the Turn, that Column must lose one BP due to attrition,

        even if the US player rolls a '0' for his Attrition DR.

        This event stays in effect even if the War Party performs

        some other Operation in the same or different Area,

        becomes Finished, or is eliminated by other US Columns.

        Declaring a Fort Siege does not constitute an action for

        the War Party involved, it may still perform an Operation

        in the same Round. The US must Ignore this event.


 5      STRONGHOLD: Tribal Villages were usually located in areas

        where survival was the primary concern, not defense.

        However some chiefs had a keen military eye for the

        ground and sometimes located their Tribes in defensive

        terrain to help protect them from enemy tribes and

        troops. Place a Stronghold marker on an Active Indian

        Village of your choice. For the remainder of the Turn,

        any enemy Indian War Parties and US Columns which attack

        that Village have a -3 DRM when making a DR on the Battle

        Table. This is in addition to any other modifiers the

        attacker may have. The affected Village must maintain at

        least one BP in it for the remainder of the Turn in order

        to retain the Stronghold advantage. If the Village

        Relocates, attempts Evasion when attacked, or receives a

        Devastation marker as a result of an attack after the

        play of this event, it loses its Stronghold advantage for

        the rest of the Turn (remove the Stronghold marker). The

        US must Ignore this event.


 6      SAND CREEK MASSACRE: While there were many massacres

        on both sides during the Indian Wars, the Sand Creek

        Massacre stands out as one that couldn't have happened at

        a worst time for the US. Besides delaying Colorado's

        admission into the Union for over a decade, it also came

        towards the end of the Civil War when the country was

        looking forward to the end of the fighting and did not

        want to jump into another war. It also caused many Tribes

        which were peaceful at the time to, if not go on the War

        Path, at least take a more belligerent stance towards the

        US. This event represents a massacre that causes an

        inordinate amount of bad publicity for the US and

        enrages, rather than scares, the Indians. The US player

        must randomly pick one Tribe from the Inactive Tribal

        deck. That Tribe is now extinct and is removed from the

        game. If the Tribe picked has multiple Villages, one

        Village must then be randomly picked and that Village

        becomes extinct. The US player receives no VPs for this.

        Each Indian player, starting with the one with the least

        amount of VPs, and then working their way up the list,

        may now randomly pick one Tribal Card from the Inactive

        Tribal deck and add to their set of unplayed Tribal

        Cards. The Area where the Tribe was eliminated from may

        not become a State this Turn. (Place the event marker in

        the affected Area.) If the Area is already a State,

        ignore this provision although the rest of the event

        still applies. This event does not count as a Massacre

        for purposes of Rule 8.21. This event may only occur once

        in a game, any further occurrences of this event are

        treated as No Event. This event must be played by the

        player who first rolled it on the table in the game,

        regardless of whether he is Indian or US. This event can

        not be Ignored or Discarded.


 7      HORSE KILLERS: US forces would frequently capture the

        horse herds from Indian Villages that they attacked and

        bring them back with them to sell for profit. More often

        than not, Indian War Parties would recapture their horse

        herds before the Columns could make it back to the safety

        of the fort. Some US Commanders, realizing the importance

        of the horse to the Indian cultures, would instead

        slaughter their horse herds upon capture, thus making the

        plight of the Indian tribes all the more harder,

        especially during the winter months. Once during the

        remainder of the Turn, the US player may declare that he

        is killing all the horses in an Indian Village in which

        he attacks and causes a Devastation marker to be placed

        on it. Place a No Horses counter on that Village. For the

        remainder of the Turn, that Indian Village has a -2 DRM

        on their Evasion total and any new War Parties that come

        from that Village may only attack or raid in the Area

        where the Village is located. Preexisting War Parties

        from the Village are not affected by the same Area

        limitation. The Indians must Ignore this event.


8-9     HOSTAGES: Although most US led massacres of Indian

        villages involve the slaughter of innocent women and

        children, some US Commanders realized that if you took

        the families back to the reservation as hostages, the

        warriors would stop fighting and come on the reservation

        as well. Once during the rest of the Turn, the US player

        may declare that he is taking hostages in an Indian

        Village in which he attacks and causes a Massacre marker

        to be placed on it. The Massacre is cancelled (remove the

        Massacre Marker) and does not count towards Statehood

        determination (10.21) during the Statehood Phase of that

        Turn. That Village and any War Parties that came from it

        go immediately On Reservation in the Area where the

        Village is located. This counts as being Forced on

        Reservation (8.14). The US player does receive his

        customary two VPs for the Village going On Reservation.

        This event can not be used to cancel out the previous

        play of the Sand Creek Massacre event. The Indians must

        Ignore this event.


12.14 MARKERS: Markers for these Random Events were published in

a counter sheet that came in the GENERAL Vol.30 #6. However,

players may construct their own counters for these events. All of

these counters are yellow counters and are removed during the End

of the Turn Phase of a Turn.


12.2 ALTERNATE SIDE DETERMINATION: For those players who want to

trust the iron dice of war, Side Determination may be performed

in every Turn without any regard to who had the US side in the

previous one or two Turns. Just follow the original instructions

printed in Rule 3.31 in the First Edition Rule Book. Note that

this may result in a player receiving the US side several Turns

in a row, thus giving him an insurmountable lead in VPs during

the rest of the game.





TRIBAL CARDS: The Ute Tribal Card should have a Battle Rating of



WAR PARTY MARKERS: The Mojave War Party marker's Battle, Evasion,

and Aggression Ratings should be (0 1 0), not (1 0 1).


UNITED STATES REFERENCE CARD: On the Battle Table in the Odds DRM

section there should be a 1-1 odds ratio line with a +0 DRM.


INDIAN REFERENCE CARD: In the Sequence of Play Box, in outline

point E.3, the Indians should be < half Strength in order to

check on going On Reservation (8.14).


MAPBOARD: On the Turn Track, in the Turn 6 Box, the amount of BPs

that the US gets should read 4/6 dr*. (This is in case of an

automatic American Civil War event occurring in that Turn as per

Rule 9.2A.)