Cry Havoc! complete PBEM rules

by Lutz Pietschker alias Noitaler
Version: 1.0 Date : 27. April 1995
This html version by: M.S. Sozzi

Version 1.0 covers all rules from the games "Cry Havoc!", "Siege", and "Samurai Blades".
Terrain types, equipment and some rules from "Dark Blades", "Outremer", and "Viking Raiders" were also described and consolidated. What is missing entirely is magic. Those who are interested in it should take a look into "Dark Blades"- but if you read carefully, you might find a dragon somewhere in this text.
To play the game you also need the file MAP.CH that describes map coordinates in detail.

Disclaimer: My English may not be quite standard, which has the simple reason that I am German and this is all they ever taught me. In cases of doubt please read what I meant, not what I wrote. And, yes, it is meant to be UK English.

Copyright: The games and original rules are under copyright for Standard Games and Publications Ltd., UK, who have done a great job providing us with them in the first place. You must have the original games and rules to play, for technical reasons and to protect this copyright. Ordering information is included in section 29.



The rules in this file are the megalomaniac attempt to outdo Standard Games, Ltd., and to provide a complete set of rules usable for every game of the "Cry Havoc!" series. They are meant to replace the rule booklets (in a technical sense only, see copyright notice above), not to add to them, so read the rules carefully, please: some might be different than those you are used to!
Some familiarity with the game is assumed, though, and historical background and character descriptions are only included where necessary in the context of the rules.

I tried to keep playability as high as it was originally, and often decided to use a simple rule but to explain it in some breadth on the assumption that reading a long text is still faster than reading a short text some times over.
For additional explanations, see also the "Plagiariser's Notes" at the end of the text. If you want to replay the examples of section 27. you need the mapboard "The Village" from "Cry Havoc!" and some counters.

If you do not like these rules, please play by the procedures described in RULES.CH, which are based only on the original rules booklets. If you are utterly annoyed and regard me as a scoundrel conning CIS connection charges out of you, just Cry Havoc! and send me a challenge. Keep those gauntlets flying!

PBEM Remarks

No game master is needed in a normal game (he would be necessary for playing a double-blind game, which certainly changes the characteristics of the game a lot and is, as I have been told, great fun to play.)

Each party could conceivably be formed by more than one player. A player turn (PT) would then be completed when each player of that side had sent his turn to each other player (of both sides). How far interaction and information between players of one side shall be allowed must be arranged beforehand. I think multi-player scenarios should use the optional rule about Command Control (22.3), and divide the forces along the zones of command. Exchange of information might be limited to one or two sentences per turn (just what a knight might call to another knight in 10 seconds), and should only be allowed between those commanders not currently in melee and in line of sight of each other.

The PBEM game uses the System of Chivalrous Dice, otherwise called the honour system. Each player rolls for any action that happens in his player turn, and the other(s) shall trust him to be honest. The same goes for any other action as counting arrows etc. To keep the game flowing you should even roll for the enemy in your PT.
If you are not willing to follow this rule, please tell your opponent so before the game starts. If you do not trust your opponent, please do not play with him.

Errors and rule violations must be claimed by the opponent instantly in his next PT. If he does not do this, the results stand. Corrections are taken into account only if they are sent before the opponent sends his next message (time of sending the messages counts). If errors are detected by the opponent, the PT is not repeated but modified:
All characters who made no mistake act as plotted. Combat results are corrected if necessary, but plotted combat takes place, even if the odds are different from what the player planned. As far as possible, the original die rolls are used, and the active player shall make any additional die rolls that may be necessary.
A unit that "made a mistake" acts as plotted up to the point of error and voids all illegal action thereafter (further legal action is taken as far as possible). Missile fire that was not allowed, or was directed against an empty hex, still spends ammunition (he fired into the blue).
A chivalrous player might decide to correct or let errors be corrected that are obvious typos.

Most "Cry Havoc!" mapboards originally do not have a coordinate grid. Read MAP.CH about how to add a coordinate system to the mapboards. Play goes more smoothly, and less errors occur, if you mark each single hex before play begins. (Water-resistant overhead projection pens are excellently suited for the task.)


: scenario special rules
LOS : line of sight
MP : movement points
MPA : movement point allowance
">" stands for "greater than", ">=" for "equal or greater than", "<" for "less than", and "<=" for "equal or less than".
"DR" or "DR10" always stands for one roll of a 10-sided die.
"3DR" (or 3DR10) would mean three rolls of that die with the results summed up. If 6-sided dice have to be used, this is expressed as "DR6".
A "DRM" is a die roll modifier, a value that is added to the die roll (a negative DRM reduces the DR result, of course). Unless specified otherwise, all DRM are cumulative.
What is rolled on the dice is the "original DR". The "final DR" is calculated by adding the appropriate DRM to the original DR.
A "+1 CS" means a column shift of one column to the right when looking up a combat result table, and a "-1 CS" a shift of one column to the left.
The combat odds calculated by dividing the (perhaps modified, e.g. charge attack) combat strength values are called "original combat odds". The "final combat odds" are obtained by applying the appropriate CS to the original odds.

Random determination of a hex or location may be performed by assigning a number to each possible location and rolling a die. The hex whose number shows up is selected. Exactly one hex or location is selected. Random determination of a unit works differently: Roll a 10-sided die for each eligible unit. The (one or more) units who rolled the lowest number are selected.
The terms "attack (resp. defence) strength", "attack value", "attack factor", "attack points" are used synonymously.
If not stated otherwise, fractions of numbers are retained. Normally, this yields the same result as rounding them down, because they vanish in the calculation of odds, and fractional movement points may not be used either.

Ah, yes: "he" also means "she", etc.; even if this may not advance equality, it is at least an acknowledgement of the problem. Here's to you, Ladies! A real knight will always regard himself your humble obedient servant.

Unit is a general term including any character or animal, as well as carts, all siege engines, and ships, but excluding portable and minor equipment like torches, ladders, lanterns etc. In the text, it is sometimes used synonymously to "character".

A character is every unit on the map that has counters showing 4 different states of health. In principle, a character is capable of independent movement and/or action (even if not at that moment or in that scenario). He remains a character even if he is temporarily or permanently disabled during the game and thus loses his moving/ acting capability.
A character is identified by the name printed on the counters, belongs to one or more character class(es), and may have special abilities and special status attributes. Most characters that are allowed to mount have 2 additional counters, showing the healthy and wounded mounted character and the live and dead horse.

Animals are different from characters insofar as they only have two health states ("healthy" and "dead"), and that they never move or act independently (the dog is a slight exception to this).

Equipment are carts, siege engines, ladders, screens, torches, barrels of oil, treasure etc. Frequently a distinction is made between "non-portable" and "portable" equipment, with the portable sub-divided into equipment that "hinders movement" (i.e. MP are needed to carry it) and such that does not. Ships are a special class of equipment with its own set of rules.

Character status:
Healthy: This is the "good order" status of a character or animal, the status with the highest strength and movement values.
Live/Dead: Live characters can be healthy, wounded, or stunned. Live animals can only be healthy. Active/Inactive: Active characters are those who act or move by the player's decision, even if currently trapped in a situation that limits their freedom of action or movement (for example, panic). Stunned, dead, or neutral characters, prisoners, and animals are regarded inactive. If a rule demands an "active" character for a task, he may be wounded or healthy.
Mounted/Dismounted: A character can be mounted, i.e. on horseback, or dismounted. He has different capabilities and restrictions in each of those two states. Only certain character classes may mount horses. No other animals may be mounted. A mounted character is also referred to as "rider" or "cavalry", an unmounted character as "infantry" or "foot". If in the process of mounting (which may take several turns, see 12.3) he remains dismounted until mounting is completed, and vice versa.
Armoured/Unarmoured: Armoured characters are those with an encircled defence strength on the counter (as used in "Outremer"). In addition all knights, and all characters with an unmounted healthy defence strength of >= 6, are regarded as armoured. All other units are unarmoured.
Friendly / Neutral / Enemy: All characters controlled by one player are "friends" to that player, all characters controlled by his opponent are "enemies". Neutral characters are controlled by neither player, they only act as guided by rules and will remain stationary and inactive otherwise.

Character Classes: The following character classes are defined:
Caparisoned Knights: Also called Barons. They have armoured horses in addition to their own armour and are treated like other knights in all respects.
Knights: This includes all kinds of Kings, Barons, Knights, Mamluks, Viking Jarls, Saxon Earls and Thanes, and all kinds of Samurai. All knights are armoured, may mount horses, and exercise command control over friendly characters.
Sergeants: Sergeants may have command control defined by the scenario special rules or set-up. All sergeants may mount horses.
Archers: This includes (mounted and unmounted) shortbowmen and longbowmen.
Spearmen: They may use their spear as a missile only by SSR. Even if the weapon has been thrown, attack and defence values remain the same. Spearmen have a special combat attack option against characters in water hexes (see 17.5).
Missilemen: This includes archers, crossbowmen, slingers, and spear-, dagger- or shuriken-throwing characters. Ammunition for missilemen is limited for daggers (2 per assassin character) and spearmen (1 spear, or by SSR), for others only if the optional ammunition limitation rule is used (see 22.2). Crossbowmen use own fire phases (and phase restrictions) because of the complicated loading process; all other missilemen fire like archers. The combat values of missilemen who are out of ammunition remain unchanged; they just may no longer fire missiles.
Soldiers/Civilians: Some characters may be designated as "civilians" in a scenario, or may be civilian implicitly by their profession (merchant etc.). All characters that are not civilians are soldiers. Engineers manning the siege engines are soldiers, and cleric personnel may be civilians or soldiers depending on the scenario.

Special Character Types: Some character types have special abilities:
Engineers: Engineers are soldiers with special technical knowledge (some of them could even do multiplication), and very light armament. They are required for operating, repairing and building siege engines. They may do this even if wounded, as it is more their special knowledge that is needed than their physical strength.
Berserk: Berserk (or Berserker) are a Viking character type. They worked themselves into a rage before the battle, and rushed into the fray like madmen, disregarding pain, danger and even injury to some extent. Berserks behave normally in battle except as noted below (for an explanation of the term "ADJACENT" see 3.4): On the beginning of each own movement phase the player rolls a die for every active berserk that is within movement range of an active enemy. On a DR of 1 to 7 he remains (or returns to) "normal", on a DR of 8 to 10 the character goes into (or remains in) "berserk rage" that lasts to the beginning of his next movement phase, when he has to check for rage again. There is a +3 DRM if the character is already in a rage. If the character is in a rage already and rolls an original 10, he goes into "mad rage" and will, regardless of existing melees, attack any one eligible character in this one turn, even of his own side. The character attacked in "mad rage" is determined by the rules below, but random decision is continued until exactly one target character is singled out. While in a rage, the berserk's wounded and healthy attack strengths are increased by 7 points, and his defence strengths by 2 points. In addition, he will treat the first "wounded" result received in each fit of rage like a "no effect" result. A berserk in a rage will always attack ADJACENT enemies in combat, never break melee voluntarily, and never accept surrender (this is an exception to 22.7). If there are more than one ADJACENT enemies, the berserk may attack one or more of them at his choice (only one in "mad rage"). He may attack as part of a combat group, and may shift targets, like any other character. Only if there is no ADJACENT enemy, the berserk will move ADJACENT to the nearest (measured in MP) enemy in his LOS. He will always take the route using the fewest MP, choosing freely between equivalent routes. If, during the move, he gets a LOS to a nearer target, he will switch his attack to this new target. If he becomes ADJACENT to an enemy on his way, he will stop immediately and attack in the combat phase. No rage starts, and any rage ceases immediately, if he has no enemy in LOS or within his movement range.
Assassins: These are fanatic Muslim characters that have specialised in (you guessed it) assassination, and other covert forms of warfare. They usually carry 2 daggers with them which they may throw. Assassins have advantages at night. They are immune to the "night" DRM on the Panic Table. If not illuminated, they may be seen only if adjacent to the viewer (their own ability to see units is normal). Assassins have a -2 DRM on the Swimming Table.
Ninja: Ninja are Japanese warriors with special training and great determination. They are the only units that may throw the shuriken throwing knives. Ninja have advantages at night. They are immune to the "night" DRM on the Panic Table. If not illuminated, they may be seen only if adjacent to the viewer (their own ability to see units is normal). Ninja have a -2 DRM on the Swimming Table.
Japanese Monks: Those monks often put their mental power to practical use. One of their common, if astounding, feats was to deflect missiles. The attacking player throws a die whenever an active infantry monk was hit by a missile (except dagger, shuriken, ballista bolt) with a result other than "no effect". The damage result is modified as follows: DR 1,2,3,4: A "killed" becomes a "wounded", a "wounded" a "retreat", and a "retreat" a "no effect" result. No further deflection attempts may be made in this fire phase DR 5,6,7 : The result is taken in full but he may attempt deflection again in this fire phase on another missile attack. DR 8,9,10 : The result is taken in full, and no further deflection attempts may be made in this fire phase.

Time and distance scale:
1 hex is about 1.50 m, so one mapboard is approximately 25 by 35 m.
Normal time flow is assumed as 10 seconds real time per player turn, with player turns taking place nearly simultaneously (they are only separated for playability). The 10-second-interval only refers to the short-term flow of action; you may not conclude that 24 hours equal 8640 game turns. Obviously there will be slack periods of time, and those are worked into the game turns imperceptibly. A 10-turn-scenario may well depict a brawl of 30 minutes real time, for example, and time passes even faster under siege conditions.

In some scenarios, and in campaigns, certain actions are considered in a matter of days. The first definition for a "day" is as given in the "Siege" scenarios:
The scenario attacker and defender each roll a die. If the defender rolled 5 more than the attacker, he has the initiative for that day, else the attacker has the initiative.
In turns with defender initiative, the defender may chose to sally against the attacker, or to sally for supplies. In a turn with attacker initiative, the attacker may chose to attack the castle, or to batter the castle, and/or to repair or build siege engines.
Scenarios for this sequence are included in the "Siege" scenario booklet. The "sally" and "attack" actions are in fact scenarios, with the siege situation providing only the background and the circumstances. So the decision for attack or sally just means "now play that scenario".
The battering and building/ repair actions are handled very abstractly and without playing a scenario for that day ("offboard" procedures, see 19.3, 19.51, 19.6); the day passes without any other player action but to allocate men and siege engines to the task planned, and to resolve the battering damage or the building/ repair success, which is done by rolling one or more dice and looking up the results in the appropriate tables.
At the end of each day repairs, healing, resupply, and reinforcements come into effect. If night action takes place, it is limited by similar conditions, but without further repair or healing results. Since this definition of a day leaves most of the action to the attacker, I propose that at least the defender may effect repairs on days with attacker initiative. Still, it might lead to an unbalanced game in terms of player activity.

I offer an alternative definition that allows to play a day in more detail, though it works on a scale that probably does not allow to play a whole siege. It may be useful, perhaps, to represent a sequence of a few days of a siege situation. With this definition, each day is a scenario of its own, and most action happens "onboard (see 19.4, 19.52, 19.7). The day is assumed to have passed when

At the end of each day and/or night scenario, players may draw back forces into their camps, castles, houses or whatever they consider their own uncontested base of operations, and may rearrange them freely inside that area. In effect, this results in a new set-up for each new day or night action (excluding siege engines). All fires (excluding campfires and fireplaces set up deliberately for illumination) are extinguished, all places that were on fire are regarded as destroyed.
The beginning of a new day may also be the time to apply healing, resupply, etc.

Maps, Hexes, Counters

Half-hexes at the map edge are playable exactly like full hexes. They also have the full movement cost. All units are regarded "onboard" as long as they occupy at least one hex or half-hex of the map.

Hexes that are formed by two half-hexes with different terrain butted together provide the movement possibilities and costs of the more difficult terrain, the better cover, and the more disadvantageous terrain modifier of the two.

A hex has only one terrain at a time, there are no different "locations" in a hex. Exceptions to this rule are the siege tower (19.12), the Dungeon (16.33), Gate hexes (16.31), Bridges (16.124, 16.125), and the Drawbridge (18.1).
Example: A hex with a ladder is a ladder hex; a character in this hex is always on that ladder (you can not walk "under" the ladder).

Every terrain fills the entire hex (but excluding the hexsides) even if the artwork does not show this. For line of sight purposes, the same is true for hindering equipment or characters. The exception to this are slope lips, building walls etc., which are extended hex borders rather than hex terrain, and for which the actual artwork decides about line of sight.
In cases where two adjacent hexes share a normal hexside (i.e. no "hexside terrain"), and both of those hexes provide cover resp. a LOS hindrance, LOS is not free along that hexside but determined by the hex with the lesser cover resp. hindrance. See also chapter 5., "Line of Sight".

Hexes are called "adjacent" in these rules if they share a common hexside and a LOS exists between them. Adjacency allows a missile attack. If, in addition, movement directly across the common hexside is allowed (assuming a character had the necessary MPA, and ignoring in-hex movement hindrances), the hexes are called ADJACENT. For a combat attack ADJACENCY is required, and this might not be reciprocal: for example, a rider may not attack through a window (because he is not allowed to move directly, in his present mounted status, through the window), whereas infantry, even if wounded, might attack him through the window (because in principle infantry is allowed to cross window hexsides). (The "spearman special" combat attack (see 17.5) is an exception from the ADJACENCY requirement for combat.)
Offboard characters are not adjacent to any other character.

Some additional counters or markers might be useful, e.g. to mark melee status or open/shut status of doors and gates. Torches and cauldrons of boiling water are an example for special equipment for which no original counter exists.

Notification of unit positions is by hex coordinate, if necessary preceded by the mapboard short name (see file MAP.CH). Hexsides are designated by the adjacent hex coordinates, separated by a slash (e.g. VilT6/S6 is a window hexside).
For units that occupy more than one hex the front or "head" hex coordinate is given first. (Example: A horse in VilL9-L10 looks into the yard of building 4; if it is in VilL10-L9 it probably just came out of the yard, with his rear end still in the doorway.) Animals led or strung together are written from "head" (or leader) to "rear", with "+" signs indicating the coherence. (e.g. Tybald VilT10 + Horse U10/V11 + Mule_1 V12 + Mule_3 V13 ...).
For upright ladders, the hex the ladder top points to is given behind the ladder base coordinate after an angled bracket (a ladder in CasK5>K6 stands in K5 and points to K6).
Carried Equipment is noted in parentheses behind the carrying character's name, for example "Ben (torch)".

For horses and carts, the 3 frontmost hexes adjacent to the "head" hex are called the "front arc", the 2 hexes to the right and left the "side hexes", and the 3 remaining hexes adjacent to the rear hex the "rear arc".

Sequence of Play

Each Game Turn (GT) consists of two identical Player Turns (PT). Each player works out his PT and sends the results to his opponent(s). At least two messages must be exchanged for each GT (that is, one for each PT). From time to time, additional messages are necessary to resolve the results of missile attacks, pinning, or other incidents. Each PT has several phases (or steps).

PT phases for the first player:

PT of second player:

This is exactly like first player's turn.

Note: If missile attacks have a "defender retreat" result and it matters where the defender retreats to, additional messages would have to be exchanged after such attacks. If the retreat path is pre-determined by the rules, the attacker moves the retreating unit himself; if the attacker decides that he does not care where the defender retreats to, he may continue and leave the retreat resolution to the next player in his PT.
Messages should always deal with complete phases. It is not appropriate for the game scale to ask for retreat resolution after every missile fired; in this respect, all fire in one phase shall be regarded as simultaneous.
Comments in the PT messages can create a realistic atmosphere and should be used freely.

Line of Sight

Line of sight (LOS) is important for missile fire, catapult use, and for detection of enemies and consequently raising alarm.
In daytime scenarios, LOS is always reciprocal: If A can see B, B can also see A (and shoot at him, for example). In night-time scenarios this may not be the case if one character is illuminated and the other is not, or if the characters have different capabilities for stealth (Ninja or Assassin, see 2.74 resp. 2.73).

LOS is always traced from hex to hex. If a hex is visible, a unit in it can be fired at (though it may receive cover). Units that are not on the map are always out of sight.
In most cases, LOS may be traced from any part of the viewer's to any part of the target hex (see also optional rule 22.4, "Alternative LOS"). Exceptions apply only for fire through apertures (windows, doors, arrow slits). In this case LOS is traced from any point on the edges of the aperture depiction, or any point between them. This applies regardless if the aperture is a hexside or an in-hex-feature. (Note that range is still measured from hex to hex.)
In cases of doubt, LOS checks can be carried out by stretching a piece of thread along the LOS. Hindrance or blocking occurs only if the obstacle is visible on both sides of the thread.

LOS can be hindered by intervening characters, equipment and terrain, or be blocked completely by them. A hindrance is referred to as "cover" and modifies missile attack results.
LOS across a common hexside always exists if this hexside is not a wall without aperture, or a closed gate door or drawbridge (a closed door or window are no apertures until opened). Even between adjacent hexes, in-hex-terrain or the common hexside may provide cover against missile fire.
Elevation may affect LOS. Elevations in man-made terrain features are always marked by stairs that must be passed while moving from one location to another.
The number of stair hexes passed on this (hypothetical) move marks the elevation difference. Natural elevations are marked by a LOS crossing a slope or moat lip. Slope elevation is equivalent to one stair hex for LOS purposes.
In the following, the terms "elevated" (or "higher") and "lower" always refer to the relative elevation between two locations, not to an absolute elevation.

Hindrance is always determined only by the one most heavy of all hindrances passed by the LOS. For example, multiple "light" hindrances still give only light cover. When LOS is exactly along a hex border, the hindrance of the lighter of the adjacent terrain types or hex contents applies. LOS to multi-hex-units may be traced to either hex, and the target receives the appropriate cover, but note the missile fire restrictions in 6.52.

Special LOS cases
This listing is meant to alert the player to the existence of special LOS cases. In cases of doubt, the LOS description in the terrain or equipment section shall be used. For cover, see 6.5.

Elevation differences block LOS only in the following cases:

Elevated positions provide an extended LOS, and elevations block same or lower level LOS themselves. Note that a slope only creates an elevation if the LOS actually passes the slope lip.
For fire from an elevated position, walls (including battlements) give cover only if the wall hexside is closer to the target than to the firer, but even then no LOS exists through the roof of a building into building interior hexes. LOS into or through doors and windows is not affected by elevation. Castle Wall terrain (16.19) and castle towers (16.113) always blocks LOS regardless of elevation.
Intervening characters do not block LOS, though they may hinder or block fire (see 6.2). Intervening equipment may hinder or block LOS (for details, see sections 18. and 19.). The siege tower blocks all LOS through its hexes.

Missile Attacks

Missiles can be arrows, crossbow bolts, ballista bolts, stones hurled from a sling, thrown daggers and shuriken, and thrown spears. All missiles are lost after use and may not be recovered for further use under any circumstances. If the optional ammunition limitation rule (22.2) is not used, however, only daggers and spears are limited in supply. If a character with a missile weapon has no ammunition left, he obviously may make no further missile attacks. He still may have combat normally, and his combat values are not affected. Missile supply may be refreshed by SSR, during campaign games, and by ammunition exchange (see 22.2).
The attacker decides which missile attacks take place and determines LOS. He may observe the results of every attack before deciding on the next one (in other words, attacks are not pre-registered). Each missileman may only fire once in each of his fire phases, and each fire must be directed against one single character. No rule forbids to fire on friendly characters, and if this happens in error or otherwise, the results stand.
No missileman may fire if he is in melee or in the same location with an enemy.
No missiles may be fired by characters in deep or bottomless water, or on ladders.
Missile fire and movement restrict each other. Crossbowmen who fired may not move in the same PT, and archers may only fire in the second missile fire phase of the PT if they used <= half of their MPA in the movement phase.

Only targets in LOS may be attacked. Only one hex of a horse or rider needs to be in LOS to fire at him. If both hexes are visible, the firer may chose which of them to attack. In any case, the fire is resolved normally and afflicts the entire unit at full strength. No fire is allowed into overstacked hexes (see 7.2).
Fire is allowed over intervening characters (or the equivalent animals, see 13.) as long as the following conditions are not violated:

Regardless of elevation difference and weapon type, any fire is forbidden if an intervening active unit is adjacent to, and on the same level as, the target or the firer. If the target or firer is a rider or is on a cart, though, only an adjacent rider or horse blocks fire. Implicitly, fire is also forbidden into overstacked hexes (see 7.1).
To fire, calculate the distance (so many hexes, including the target but exclusive of the firer's hex), and determine to what range (short, medium or long) this corresponds for this type of missile. No fire is allowed into the firer's own hex ("zero distance") or above long range. If the optional ammunition limitation rule is used, mark off the used ammunition from the firer's supply.
Now roll a die, and add resp. subtract the applicable DRM. Among others, there are modifiers for weapon type, range, cover, movement status, etc. Find the appropriate Missile Fire Table, look up the damage result, and apply the damage.

The terrain in the target hex, terrain along the LOS, or hexside features may hinder missile fire. From the target's point of view, this is called "cover".
The cover of different terrain types is treated in the "Terrain" section of the rules (16.).
Cover only modifies the result of missile fire, not of combat. Light cover adds a +1 DRM to the DR, medium cover a +2 DRM, and heavy cover a +3 DRM.
"Infinite" cover is synonymous to a blocked LOS and thus blocks fire completely. Cover is cumulative with other DRM, but if different cover DRM would be applicable only the one most heavy of them is used. Multiple "lighter" covers do not add up to any heavier cover.
Riders and horses receive the cover of the one hex the firer aimed at. This hex must be in LOS of the firer. If both hexes are in LOS, the firer must chose the nearer of the two hexes as his target hex; if both are equidistant, he may chose between them freely.
Cover received from exterior building corners and doors is special insofar as it is limited to certain fire directions. In-hex-doors only give cover from the inside or from the outside, not both. A hexside door only gives cover for fire passing through it.
Exterior building corners only give cover if the corner depiction blocks LOS to some part of the corner hex. Even if cover exists, the character in the corner hex may only claim one of the two possible LOS "shadows" as cover at a time.
Thus, if he decided to get cover from one specific fire or general direction, he is in cover for all fire with a similar LOS shadow, and in no cover for all other fire. This is true regardless of elevation.
The player must state which cover he claims, else it is determined by the first incoming fire (as described in 7.9).
For same-level fire, the target receives light cover (+1) if any characters intervene.
Regardless of the number of scrub, tent and fence hexes passed, these terrain types provide light cover (+1) for same-level fire. Fire from an elevated position voids the cover of scrub and fences. It also voids cover for fire over tents, but not for fire into the tent hex.
Trees provide light cover (+1) regardless of elevation.
Rubble provides medium cover (+2) regardless of elevation if the target is in rubble or LOS passes a rubble hex.
Rock provides medium cover (+2) for fire into or through rock hexes, which is voided for fire from elevated positions.
Cover from water is not affected by elevation.
Debris from destroyed tents, siege engines, carts etc. provides no cover itself, but does not affect cover received by terrain or other circumstances.

A missile attack by a hidden enemy force is called "ambush". An ambush situation modifies panic determination in the PT in which this attack occurs. It has no other effects. For hidden setup see also 22.8, for panic determination 22.9.

The damage done, and possible consequences, are described in the "Combat and Missile Fire Results" (10.) section of the rules.


Each hex may be occupied by only one live character or animal at a time. During movement or retreat, characters and animals may pass through friendly characters and any head or tail hex of animals not currently mounted by an enemy. They may not end their movement in such a hex. Animals strung together and/or led are treated like one "long" animal and may be passed only in their end hexes (see 13.62 / 13.7).

There are some exceptions to the stacking rule:

Each character has a movement point allowance (MPA) printed on his counter. As he moves through each hex he expends movement points (MP) depending on the amount that each hex costs to pass through. Some hexsides need additional MP to cross them, for example windows and battlements. MP needed to carry equipment are spent before MP may be used for actual movement (so a task that demands to spend the "complete MPA" of a character is incompatible with carrying equipment).
He may spend none, some or all of his MP in one movement phase, but he may not accumulate unused MP for later use, nor may he exceed his MPA (exception: a character climbing out of water may exceed his MPA, see 17.). He may transfer MP to other characters only by "helping" them (see 12.2).
A player may move one, some or all of his characters in his movement phase in any sequence, one at a time. A character who ended movement may not resume movement later in that movement phase, even if he still has MP left.

No character (or animal led by a friend) may pass through a hex containing a live enemy (note that stunned characters are "live"). Friendly and neutral units may be passed through if their hindrance (7.8) is not sufficient to block movement, but movement may never end in such a hex.

No unit may pass through any hexside or enter any terrain that is marked as "impassable" for this type of unit.
Elevation differences may only be negotiated by slopes, moat slopes, stairs, scaling ladders, or use of the siege tower. (In some cases, slopes may be circumvented using flat ground terrain.) The cost for taking the elevation is worked into the movement cost for the terrain resp. equipment.
Movement of riders and led horses must observe additional restrictions:

At every moment, all hexes of a unit must be on firm ground. Even if only part of a unit is forced to move into non-ADJACENT terrain, the whole unit falls into this hex and an ADJACENT hex (determined at random). Animals die, riders are dismounted and are placed ADJACENT to the horse at random, characters (including riders) receive a "wounded" damage result, equipment is destroyed. If falling into deep or bottomless water, animals drown, equipment vanishes, but a falling character is not wounded by the fall.

Besides terrain, debris and live and dead characters and animals may hinder movement. Up to 3 foot characters do not hinder movement, 4 to 6 double the movement cost for that hex, and more than 6 make the hex impassable. A horse or oxen is equivalent to 3 characters, a mule to 2 characters, and any other animal to 1 character. Debris is equivalent to 3 characters. Besides hindering movement, this also changes the in-hex terrain combat advantage to "negative".

For a character in an exterior corner hex or door hex the controlling player should note, for each turn he arrives at or remains in such a hex, from which side he shall receive cover. He may change this in every own movement phase and, if he does not move otherwise, this changing of cover does not count as movement. See also 6.53 for cover from corners.
If cover direction is not stated, it is determined in every turn by the first fire directed at the character in that turn, in a way that he receives cover from this fire. (Of course, a cunning enemy might use this to his advantage by setting the fire sequence to do maximum damage.)

Charge Movement
A charge is a fast movement towards an enemy preparing a charge combat attack. Charge attacks are only available to cavalry and must be declared before starting the move. To declare a charge the attacker must have a LOS to at least one of his targets before he starts to move.
A charge is a movement of which at least the last 6 hexes are straight forward towards the target. The movement must not be necessarily be along a hex row, but must be as straight as possible on the hex grid, i.e. have no "bends" except those imposed by the hex grid. It may not include pivoting, or circumventing obstacles with use of MP.
A charge attack increases the attack strength, but may also incur risks to the attacker: see 9.4.

Pinning a Passing Character

Characters may pass ADJACENT enemies without any special hindrance. However, any passed active enemy that is not in melee already may try to "pin", i.e. stop the passing character. He may try this only in hexes where the passing character would be allowed to end his move. The pinning attempt is done out of sequence, in the opponent's movement phase.
Each character may only make one pinning attempt per movement phase, but more than one pinning attempts may be made (by different enemies) against a passing character in one hex.
Only characters that actually move may be the target of a pinning attempt, and the attempt is always in the hex "moved into", so in the start hex of a move no pinning is possible. Passed units may not combine their strength for the pinning attempt, it is always done on a one-on-one basis.
The pinning attempt is decided by evaluating a "combat" between the characters. Any "defender" damage result successfully pins the mover; any other result rejects the attempt. The "combat" result is in every respect obtained like a normal combat result, but it only decides about the success of the pinning attempt; no actual damage is caused. Infantry trying to pin a rider must use a -1 CS in addition to all other combat modifiers (even in addition to the normal "Infantry attacks mounted character" CS).
A successful pin locks both characters in melee immediately. The moving character forfeits the rest of his movement phase, but the player may give him new combat orders.
A rejected pinning attempt has no effect whatever, and the passing character may continue movement.

Since the pinning rule could severely affect PBEM game speed, all pinning attempts are handled as follows: The defender shall read the opponents movement orders hex-by-hex, decide about pinning attempts immediately (i.e. before reading on about other movement- honour rules apply), and also evaluate them before reading on. When he is through with reading the movement phase and any pinning attempt succeeded, he must inform the moving player of the changed situation. Pinning voids any other plotted action of the pinned character, but he may decide to attack the pinning character (or any other ADJACENT enemies) in the combat phase. (He obviously may fire no missiles since he is in melee now.) Orders for fire, movement, combat etc. of other characters may not be changed. This may lead to situations the attacker did not plan nor like, but, well... this is war, not a puzzle game!


A character may attack any character(s) that are ADJACENT to combat. Note that equipment that provides a possibility to move between adjacent hexes at the same time makes them ADJACENT and allows combat between them (e.g. ladders, siege tower); on the other hand hexside terrain or elevation may block movement and make even adjacent hexes non-ADJACENT.
Characters are never forced to attack, even if currently in melee (exception: combat on ships, see 15.). Each character may attack only once per combat phase, but a unit may be attacked any number of times.
The attacker decides which combats take place, and he may attack in any order. He may observe the results of previous combats before deciding on the next combat constellation.

To resolve combat, divide the attacker's attack strength by the defender's defence strength (use modified strengths if applicable). Round the result down to the next relation given in the appropriate Combat Table to obtain the "original combat odds". Apply column shifts (CS modifiers) to get the "final combat odds". Among others, there are modifiers for terrain and mounted/unmounted status.
Now roll a die, look up the damage result in the table, and apply the damage.

Multiple Combat
If more than one character of both sides are ADJACENT to each other, the attacker chooses in which constellation they actually have combat in this turn.
To do this, he groups units that shall attack together, and declares which defenders shall be attacked as a group. All attack factors of an attack group are added into one combined attack strength, and similarly a defending group defends with its combined defence strength.
Note that even as part of a combat group a character may only attack ADJACENT enemies. No combat group may be formed that violates this rule.
The combat constellation may change in every PT at the active player's decision.
In multiple combat, the attacker may use a specific "+" CS modifier only if it applies to all units of the group, and must use all "-" CS modifiers that affect any unit of the group. The defender may claim a "-" CS modifier if it applies to any unit of the group, and suffers only from "+" CS modifiers that apply to all units of the group.
Damage results normally are taken only by one character of the losing side. If the losing side is a group, random selection is used to determine which unit takes the damage, and this may cause more than one unit to suffer a result (see 2.).

A character is encircled if he is in melee with (not just ADJACENT to) more than one character, and any two of those characters are not adjacent to each other. This situation obviously presents a serious disadvantage in combat and is allowed for by the "encircled" CS (see Combat Table). Encirclement may apply to both attacker and defender (in which case the CS cancel themselves).
Note that not all encircling characters actually have to take part in the combat; it is sufficient that they are in melee status with the encircled unit. It is possible that an attack causes encirclement of either side for subsequent combats of the same combat phase.

Charge Attack
Charging is a special, powerful form of combat attack that can only be used by cavalry. It is declared and started during the movement phase: see 7.10.
A charge attack is always a separate attack; it may attack more than one target, but not combine attack strength with other characters. Each unit may only be charged once per PT.
The charging attacker receives a bonus of half his normal attack strength for this one attack.
Example: A knight with an attack value of 27 would attack with a strength of 40,5 after a charge. Otherwise, a charge attack is a normal combat attack and also causes melee status.
If the target is a rider that is not currently in melee, and the charge hits his front arc, there is a possibility that the charge fails. In this case the attacker must roll a die before resolving the combat and apply the following results:

An evasion, counter-charge or parry result itself does not change the map positions of the units, though the damage results may do so.

Terrain Influences
Certain terrain gives an advantage or disadvantage in combat. To take this into account, the combat odds are modified with a terrain advantage CS; see the terrain descriptions and the Combat Tables for details. Only one modifier for in-hex terrain may be used for each side. Cavalry and horses always use the more disadvantageous modifier of the two hexes they occupy.
The presence of debris in a hex, or of characters or animals that present a movement hindrance (7.8), changes any terrain to "negative" terrain. This replaces the normal modifier for the in-hex terrain, but it is cumulative with hexside terrain or other modifiers.
Some terrain or hexside features make combat impossible because they make hexes non-ADJACENT. For example, no combat is allowed through walls without aperture, and arrow-slits. Mounted characters may never attack through window and door hexsides, and may not attack into the interior of a house from a door hex. Elevation differences may also make hexes non-ADJACENT (e.g. rampart/ moat). See also 3.4 for a definition of ADJACENCY.

Combat against animals
Riderless animals are attacked on the Combat Table for "Combat against mounted target, or against animal" (26.32), ignoring all damage results given for the rider. Retreat results apply. The exception to this rule are dogs which have combat like infantry (see 13.3). A mounted horse may not be attacked separately; the attack must be directed against the mounted character.

A combat attack by an enemy force of which more than half of the attack strength was hidden from view until it attacked is called "ambush". An ambush situation modifies panic determination in the PT in which this attack occurs. It has no other effects. For hidden setup see also 22.8, for panic determination 22.9.

Combat and Missile Fire Results

Missile fire and combat have immediate effects and may cause additional consequential damage. Any missile fire or combat (even a "no effects" result) makes the target aware of the enemy, so that he may raise alarm etc. (at night, a missile attack does not necessarily imply that the character is able to see the firer).
Any damage result but "no effect" forces a character to drop any items that require MP expenditure to carry them. Other items must be dropped only if "dismounted", "stunned", or "killed".
A unit may receive more than one damage result in one PT or even turn phase. Each damage is resolved immediately, so a second attack (or even consequential damage of the same attack) might hit the unit in a weakened state and lead to most final consequences.

For damage resulting from multiple combat, the character(s) affected by a damage result are determined by random selection (see 2.).
There is one exception to this: if random selection for any (infantry, horse, or rider) "killed" result indicates more than one unit to take damage, only one unit (random, too) will actually be killed; for the others it is reduced to "wounded" or (in case of animals) "none".

If a character is stunned or killed while he carried something, he drops that item into the hex he occupies. If retreating or wounded, he only drops items that cost MP to carry them. If dropping has any effect on the item this is mentioned in the "Special Equipment" section.

Advance after combat
If a unit retreated or was killed, one character of the victorious side of that combat (player's choice) may advance immediately after resolving the damage. He must start his advance into the hex vacated by the retreating or killed character, but is free in his advance movement afterwards. He may never violate normal movement rules in an advance.
Advance is only possible after combat, not after missile fire. Note that advance can be used by the victor of the combat, regardless if he is attacker or defender in this PT. Only one of the characters directly involved in the combat may advance, and only immediately after this combat. Advance is voluntary. No pinning is possible during an advance.
The advancing character may use up to half of his MPA if he is not ADJACENT to any enemy before the advance. He may move one hex, spending no more than his full MPA, if he is ADJACENT to an enemy before the advance, but not in any melee.
He may move one hex, but spend no more than half of his MPA on that move, if he is in melee. Even if this move should break melees he may not advance further.
Advance is a move out of sequence, and MP used for advance do not count against the MPA for the next movement phase.

Panic and rout
Combat or fire results may lead to panic or rout. These rules are optional and only valid if agreed beforehand or by SSR. See 22.9 for details.


Melee status is a consequence of combat, pinned movement, or overstacking.
Missile attacks and combat against animals or inactive characters do not cause melee status.
Melee status imposes some limitations to the actions of both characters. It links individual characters with each other; you might imagine that melee status creates a tie between them that will exist until it is broken by some positive action.

While in melee, a character may not do anything but to continue combat or withdraw from melee. In particular, a character in melee may not fire any missiles, mount, or dismount, try to pin enemy movement, challenge to single combat, light or extinguish fires, operate or repair equipment, etc. He may not pick up equipment, but is not forced to drop things he carried before entering melee. A rider that is in melee may not be led by another character. He may attack any characters that are in melee with him, or any additional units that are ADJACENT, thus bringing them into melee, too. He is not forced to attack every character in melee with him; he may attack one, some, all, or none of them at his choice, though a refusal to attack does not break melee status (he just decided he would concentrate on defence only). Melee does not change combat odds or influence combat in any other way.

Melee status is initiated automatically by combat, regardless of the damage result. A character can be in melee with more than one character. In multiple combat situations, all attackers and defenders of the combat are in melee with each other immediately.
Melee status may be rejected by a rider that is not currently in melee and that attacks one or more infantry characters. The rider must attack alone in this combat (.i.e. not as part of a combat group), and he must declare if he will accept or reject melee status before combat is resolved. (This exception simulates a hit-and-run situation made possible by the speed and impact of the rider.) For all other combat situations melee is automatic. Once in melee, all character types are treated equally.
Melee status is also caused by a successful pinning attempt (see 8.), or from the moment overstacking occurs (see 7.2).

Melee status between two characters is broken immediately when one of them becomes inactive or withdraws, but this has no effect on other melees a character is in. Once he is free from all melees, all limitations imposed by melee status end immediately.
A withdrawal from melee can be performed voluntarily in 3 ways, and may be forced by a few involuntary types of movement:

Other Actions

Certain actions take more time than one turn phase, and are therefore governed by special rules. Such actions are called "tasks".
A task is always accomplished in full PT increments, and it may take one or more PT to complete it. If not specified otherwise, those PT must be consecutive.
If a character shall begin a task this must be declared at the beginning of the PT, and that character may not be in melee.
While working on a task, he may take no other action whatever, nor may he move, lead animals, guard prisoners, etc. If he does, or is attacked in combat (regardless of the result), the task is broken off and is regarded as if it never had been begun (there do not remain any "partial" results of the task). He may be wounded by missile fire without being forced to break off, but he uses his wounded strength from then on. Any retreat forces him to break off the task.
Wounded characters use their wounded strength factors. For tasks that are described as taking so many turns, this number of turns is doubled for wounded characters, or two wounded characters may replace one healthy character.
The result of an accomplished task comes into effect at the end of the working character's PT if not explicitly stated otherwise.

Helping other characters
Any character with a MPA of at least 3 may help an ADJACENT infantry character to move over obstacles, through windows, and other difficult terrain. He may transfer up to two MP to that character, but may not in this turn fire missiles or attack in combat. He must begin his movement phase ADJACENT to the character he wants to help and must remain ADJACENT throughout the move. Otherwise, both characters spend MP normally during this move.
It is also possible to help a wounded character to mount, which reduces the time needed for the task (see 12.33), or to help a character leave the water which improves his chances to climb out and also adds to his MPA (see 17.), or to support a wounded character in deep water which improves his chances to survive and move (see 17.42). All these special helping actions take the full MPA of the helping character, so that he may not move himself while helping.
A (live or dead) unmounted character may also be carried by 2 healthy characters who start their movement phase at opposing hexes ADJACENT to the carried character. The whole assembly moves as one rigid piece and has a MPA of 2 which it may use to move straight into any direction, or to pivot 60 degrees round the carried unit. Straight movement and pivoting may be combined freely. The helpers may also load/ unload their burden on/ from a cart hex that is ADJACENT to the carried character and to one of the helpers, with the other helper moving into the hex that was occupied by the carried character (this takes one complete movement phase and will disrupt resp. create the assembly, see the example in 27.7).

Mounting and dismounting
Only horses may be mounted, and only by characters that either started the scenario mounted, or are of the Knight or Sergeant character class, or are allowed to mount by SSR. In addition, peasants may mount a horse that is attached to a cart, but may not attack while mounted and must dismount before the horse may be detached. A character that has no special counter for the mounted state uses his infantry counter on top of the riderless horse counter and may add 5 to his combat attack strength while mounted. For all kind of movement (including advance, retreat, etc.) the MPA of the horse is used. All carried items that hinder movement must be dropped before mounting.
Mounting and dismounting is possible only from/to one of the 2 side hexes of the horse, and the side hex used must be ADJACENT to the horse. In addition, mounting and dismounting is not possible across a window, slope or moat lip, river bank, or door hexside (mounting from/into a door hex is allowed).
Mounting is a task that takes one PT; mounting comes into effect at the end of the PT. Neither horse nor character may move in that PT. Characters in melee may not mount, but the mere existence of ADJACENT characters is no hindrance.
Wounded characters take two entire PT to mount, and mounting is effective only at the end of the second PT. If helped by another character (which costs all MP of the helper, see 12.22), a wounded character may mount in one turn.
Dismounting is not a task, but a special form of movement that takes the full MPA of a character. It becomes effective at the end of the movement phase. Neither may the horse move before the dismount, nor the character after dismounting, but the character may act normally in all phases before and after the movement phase. Missilemen may fire before dismounting, but not after. Dismounting is allowed for characters in melee, and the dismounting may break the melee. There is no penalty for wounded characters.

Taking and guarding prisoners
One procedure is described in 22.7, "Ransom and Surrender", and may be applied to any character that surrendered by any reason. SSR may define other procedures instead. The guard must be allocated to the prisoners explicitly, and may not lead animals at the same time as guarding prisoners.
In addition, a stunned character may be taken prisoner if the nearest friendly soldier is in a distance >= his MPA to him. A friendly soldier that is currently in melee only prevents capture if he is ADJACENT to the stunned character.

Picking up, carrying, and dropping equipment
Only infantry may pick up and carry equipment. Picking something up is only allowed in the movement phase, at the cost of 1 movement point. Of those things that cost MP to carry (that "hinder movement"), a character may never carry more than one at a time, and he will lose them if he receives a "stunned", "retreat", or "dismount" combat or missile fire damage, or if he panics. Other items are only lost on a "stunned" or "killed" result.
Missilemen may not fire while they carry anything. A character in melee may continue to carry items, or drop them, but he may not pick up any new items. A character may drop an item he carries at any moment during his PT, at no cost. If not dropped before the character begins his move (regardless whether it a normal move or advance), the cost for carrying the item is subtracted from whatever MPA the character has available for this move. For the actual move, he may only spend what is left of his MPA after that. Dropped items remain in the character's hex.
Exchanging items is simply a sequence of one character dropping the item and another picking it up again.

Opening and closing doors, windows, and gates
Normally all doors, windows and yard gates are open; closeable apertures in buildings and towers exist only by SSR. SSR must also state if a door is of the "building" or "keep" door class as regards battering resistance. (It is common to give at least the keep, or strongest castle tower, a massive door of the "keep door" class.)
There are 2 different ways a door or window can be "closed": "shut" means that it may simply be opened again from both inside or outside, "bolted" means that it has been secured from the inside and must be unbolted from there again before opening it. The only way to open a bolted door or window from the outside is to batter it.
To open or shut a door or window, a character must be ADJACENT to it and expend 2 MP in his movement phase. To bolt or unbolt it requires the complete MPA of a character, and this may only be done from the interior of the building.
A door or window must be shut to bolt it, and unbolted to open it.
To open, shut, bolt or unbolt a door or window a character may not be in melee. No active enemy may be ADJACENT to either side of the door resp. window while shutting it, and no active enemy may be ADJACENT to the interior side of while bolting or unbolting it.
Gate doors exist implicitly in gate hexes. They may only be opened or shut from an ADJACENT hex on the inside of the castle resp. town. To open or shut a gate door is a 1-turn task. A shut gate doors bolts automatically, and unbolting is done automatically with the opening action. Opening or shutting is not possible if the gate hex contents would block infantry movement through this hex.

Raising the Alarm
SSR may demand that units are alerted before they may act. To do this, a character must become aware of an enemy by seeing him, or by being attacked by missile fire (regardless of LOS and result), or by being alerted himself by another unit. If still active by then, he may raise the alarm at the end of this PT, and all characters in a 10-hex-radius are aware by the start of the next friendly PT. (Note the difference between "this" and "friendly" PT.) If he is equipped with a signal horn by SSR, his alerting radius is 20 hexes.
Alerted characters will pass the alarm on in their next PT automatically, thus spreading the "circle of awareness".
A dog may also raise alarm (see 13.3).

Chivalrous Single Combat Challenge
A player may challenge his opponent in his own player turn before taking any other action (except resolving retreats and other "mopping up" from the last PT). This action is possible if the challenger has at least one active mounted knight that is not in melee in his onboard ranks currently, and the other at least one healthy mounted knight. Only one such challenge may be made by each side in one scenario. An accepted challenge interrupts the normal sequence of play.
The challenger must name one knight who will fight for his side and, if he wishes to do so, state additional conditions that shall be met. These conditions must be reasonable in the scenario context and may not by themselves decide the scenario victory. (For example, a reasonable condition would be to propose a specific fighting ground, or that the loser shall deliver a prisoner or a treasure. To demand that the loser shall withdraw all archers from the game would certainly be unreasonable.) The challenged player must now decide to accept or refuse the challenge.
If he refuses, play goes on with the challenging player continuing his turn as normal.
A refusal has the following effects: None of the currently onboard samurais of the refusing side may use the Glorious Suicide special action (see 12.10) any more in this campaign. European Knights may never refuse a challenge if they are on a quest for the Holy Grail, or by the orders of a lady, on penalty of forsaking their quest. However, this would be the individual fate of that knight and may or may not affect the scenario victory.
If the challenge is accepted, game freezes for the duration of the fight. All current combat and melee status ends immediately, no missiles may be fired, and no characters may move except by mutual consent to clear up space for the combat. Berserk rages cease, and no rage die rolls are taken for the duration of the challenge combat (exception: a berserk that is the champion of his side continues to check for rage, with all possible consequences if he attacks a character other than his chosen opponent). The player that violates this frozen state immediately loses this scenario, and his honour.
The challenged player now names any one mounted knight in his ranks as his champion, decides on the fighting ground, and places his champion. The challenger then places his knight. None of the fighters may be placed in a position with a positive terrain advantage. The challenged player then begins with the first turn. (Note that this sequence may allow the challenged player to charge attack, depending on the challenger's position.) The fighters may not use missiles, only movement and combat are allowed. Otherwise, the normal sequence of play is used.
The fighters may move freely subject to normal movement limitations, but may only enter "natural" terrain and bridges (no buildings, yards, etc.). They may not attack any other unit during single combat by penalty of losing the scenario.
If two PT have gone by without combat, the next player must do his best to attack in his PT. If a wounded opponent is dismounted, it is regarded as chivalrous (but not required) that his opponent dismounts, too, or lets him mount again without interference.
This challenge combat ends only and immediately with the death (or surrender, if allowed) of one of the knights. After that, play continues with a normal PT for the side that lost. Players must fulfil conditions set before the single combat or lose their honour (not necessarily the game).

Moving Bodies and Debris
For various reason, a player may want to clear hexes of bodies or debris. To move 2 bodies (or one dead mule, or 1 hex of debris left from destroyed equipment or tents) one hex is a one-turn-task for 2 healthy characters (or the equivalent), to move or pivot a dead horse or 2-hex-debris one hex is a 2-turn-task for 2, or a one-turn-task for 4 healthy characters (or the equivalent). 3-hex or larger debris (e.g. destroyed battering ram or siege tower) may not be cleared.
The body or debris may be moved 1 hex into any hex ADJACENT to both movers (even into their own hex, if stacking limits are not exceeded). It may never be moved into any terrain that would cost a foot character more than 2 MP to enter, and the workers themselves may not move.
Everything thrown into deep or bottomless water disappears from the map immediately, even if only part of the counter was moved into water.
Rubble may not be moved or cleared.

Glorious Suicide
Glorious suicide (seppuku) is only allowed to samurai type characters. If a player has only one living samurai left, and he deems the situation desperate, he may atone for his failure to succeed by committing seppuku. This is usually done by slashing his belly open with his own sword (hara-kiri), contemplating his interior for some time, meanwhile composing and reciting a short poem of deep meaning, preferably in the traditional "haiku" form (17 syllables with the rhythm 5-7-5). (James Bond 007 is said to have gained great honour with the poem "You only live twice- once when you are born and once- when you look death in the face", though in the end of course he survived. Well, it was not a pure haiku, on the other hand.)
Technically, seppuku is a special task that can only be accomplished by a dismounted, active samurai character. He must declare his intention to commit seppuku, and may not perform any action, especially not move, attack, fire missiles, for two full consecutive turns of the controlling player. Missile attacks do not affect seppuku if the samurai survives them; he will not retreat, but take a "wounded" result instead. If he defends in combat with his normal strength seppuku is broken off, but he may chose to defend with his "stunned" defensive strength, which would not interrupt his final task. The samurai must recite his poem at the end of the second player turn, and dies immediately after that.
If the poem composed by the player strikes a chord in the heart and mind of his opponent, and players remember it from game to game, the player may have lost that battle, but he has observed his duty towards his emperor and his ancestors, and may regard himself a worthy (perhaps even the superior) warrior after all. On the other hand, of course, a chivalrous player could "gain face" (i.e. win honour) by not interfering with the seppuku of a beaten, but brave enemy.


All animals remain stationary if not mounted by a character, or led, or driven from a cart. For retreat movement of animals, see 10.26 and the sections following it.
Animals are either healthy or dead, no other status is possible. They are attacked on the tables for mounted units and are affected only by the "retreat" and "horse killed" results (treat all other as "no effect") (exception: dogs use infantry tables, see 13.3).
Mules, horses and oxen may be strung together in any sequence, and a horse or oxen may be attached to a cart. (It is not forbidden, but serves no purpose either, to attach a string of animals to a cart. If it is done, only oxen or horses, not both, may be in that string.)
All horses (even those attached to a cart) may be mounted, and no other animal may be mounted. Horses are the only 2-hex animals; they have a "head" and a "rear" hex, and corresponding arcs that define "forward" and "backward" movement and pivoting. For all other animals these expressions are meaningless, they may move into any direction without penalty.
For terrain influence on movement, oxen are treated like horses, dogs are treated like infantry (except that they may not scale ladders), and all other animals are treated like mules.
All animals are considered neutral, even if currently led, so they do not hinder movement of either party through their hex (note that a string of animals may only be passed through at the tail or head end since it is regarded as "one long animal").

Horses and Oxen
Horses have a max. MPA of 8, oxen of 3, and both have a defence value of 1 if not stated otherwise on the counter. Horses and oxen hinder LOS and missile fire like cavalry, and hinder movement like 3 foot characters.

Mules have a MPA of 6 and a defence factor of 1. Mules hinder LOS and missile fire like infantry. They hinder movement like 2 characters.

Dogs were not included in the original games (except some very nasty wardogs in "Dark Blades"). Dogs have an attack strength of 4, a defence factor of 2 and a MPA of 10. They only move if led, and may move in any terrain like infantry (with the exception that they may not scale ladders).
Dogs never attack friendly characters. (Well, I know they do, but this is a game.) If unattended, they automatically attack enemy characters, cats and postmen in ADJACENT hexes, and try to pin passing enemy characters. They attack the first enemy they can (one of them at random in case of ties), and will continue to attack this one character as long as possible.
If led, a dog will only attack on the controlling player's command.
Dog attacks are subject to normal combat rules, and combat with a dog causes melee status. Unlike other animals, they use the tables for infantry for missile fire and combat against them. They take or cause damage normally, except that a "defender wounded" result kills them. Dogs never advance after combat.
Dogs may also alert characters. If an enemy or neutral character approaches the dog to less than 5 hexes (regardless of LOS), the dog will bark loudly at the beginning of the next player turn. This can be heard to a distance of 15 hexes and makes characters aware of something going on.

Other Animals
Other animals may not be strung together. They use terrain like mules, never hinder LOS or fire in any way, and hinder movement like 1 foot character. If not given explicitly, their defence factor is 1, and their MPA 6. Their main function is to provide atmosphere, and as booty.

The dragon- no, there must be a limit to your patience. ...
So, OK: the dragon was introduced in "Dark Blades". It is a 2-hex-unit with the states healthy (a:40, d:20, m:10), wounded (a:20, d:10, m:5), stunned (d:5), and dead. Since he acts independently, he is rather a character than an animal. So you can go on and play Young Siegfried or such like, and even invent some fearful flame spitting abilities or whatever. Ah, I forgot: the dragon is green. Refer to "Dark Blades" for details.

Stringing animals together
To string two animals together, or to un-string them, is a task that takes an active foot character one turn, during which he must be ADJACENT to both animals.
Only horses, oxen, and mules may be strung together, in any order. Horses may be connected head-to-rear only (i.e. the head of one horse must always be in the rear arc of the other, and vice versa). Strung animals must always be connected in a single file, not parallel to each other. It is allowed to connect or disconnect an animal at both its front and rear end in the same turn, but one character may only make one connection per turn.
A string of animals may have any length. A string of animals is treated as one "long and winding" animal, with the rear part of the last animal treated as rear hex and the head part of the first animal as the head. The string's MPA is that of the slowest animal in the string. If led, the leader becomes the "head" of the string. A character may pass through a string of animals only at its head or rear hex. For retreat movement of a string of animals see 10.27.

Leading Animals
Animals may be led by any (mounted or unmounted) active character. A rider may also be led, but only by a friend, and only if he is not in melee. Since a string of animals is treated as one "long" animal, all rules for leading also apply to a string of animals. A leader may only lead one animal (or string of animals) at a time, and may not guard prisoners at the same time.
To begin leading, the character must move (or be) ADJACENT to the head hex of the animal and declare his intent to lead it from now on. A mounted leader must always keep the head hex of the led animal in one of his own rear arc hexes. A character may not begin to lead an animal if a enemy that is not in melee is also ADJACENT to the animal's head hex. Enemies have no special hindering effect once leading has begun.
The leader and the animal become a "string of animals" (13.6) in this moment, with the leader (or his head hex, if he is mounted) as "head" of the string. To take up an animal for leading costs 1 MP for the leader. The leader may continue his movement with the rest of his MPA, taking the animals with him. Leading itself causes no additional MP cost. A led animal may neither exceed its own MPA nor that of the leader, taking terrain into account normally. An animal may change leaders in the movement phase any number of times, but never exceed its MPA in one movement phase.
The led animal follows its leader hex by hex or as directed by him. If a string of animal is led, this applies to the first animal of the string, and the others follow it hex by hex. Even if led, animals may not violate movement rules. Backward movement is allowed for single animals, or for the first animal of a string as long as the rest of the string remains stationary. If one animal of the string is dead the string may only move in a way that the dead animal remains stationary. As long as the general requirements for leading (ADJACENCY, etc.) are observed it is allowed to lead an animal into a new hex without moving the leader himself, or to move the leader without moving the animals. Note that the leader's movement is done before that of the animal, so the animal might provide a movement hindrance for the leader.
While leading animals, the character's attack value is halved, and he may fire no missiles. His defence and movement values remain unchanged. Riders may not charge while leading. Otherwise, the character may act normally.
Led animals may not be "stolen" from the leader, he must be forced to let them go to gain control of them. Animals remain neutral even if led and do not become "friendly" or "enemy" units.
The leader may drop the animals anytime he wants in his own PT, and any effect of leading ceases immediately. He will let go of the animals automatically upon receiving "stunned", "retreat" or "dismount" damage from missile fire or combat, but simply entering melee does not force him to let them go. If a friendly mounted character is led, leading may also be ended by that character at any time. Once the leader dropped the animal for any reason he must use exactly the same procedure as described above to begin leading again.
Animals might conceivably be led by each player in his PT, and so move twice in a GT.


The cart is 2-hex-equipment with a front and rear hex (the front is where the word "cart" is written on the counter) and corresponding arcs. Attaching and detaching a draft animal to/ from a cart uses the same mechanics as stringing and un-stringing animals to one another (see 13.6).
A cart may be pulled by a horse or oxen at an MPA of 4 or the MPA of the animal, whichever is less. To move an animal-drawn cart, the drawing animal must be led, or ridden, or driven from the cart's front hex. Note that a peasant may mount and ride a draft horse while it is attached to the cart (see 2.54), but that he must dismount before the horse may be detached again. It is allowed to attach a string of animals to a cart, but it serves no purpose (in particular, it does not increase the MPA of the cart). The rear hex of a draft animal must always occupy a hex of the cart's front arc. The draft animal may only move or pivot forward, and the carts follows in its wake (for oxen, the front arc is defined by assuming the oxen as "head" and the cart front hex as "rear"). The cart itself may never pivot. No move is allowed if all characters that could currently act as leaders or drivers are in melee. If the draft animal is forced to retreat, it will rather stop retreating than move the cart.
A moving cart may be "pinned" (see 8.) by pinning the leader resp. mounted driver. No pinning is possible if the cart is driven by a character riding in the cart.
A cart may also be pushed forward or backward by 2 healthy foot characters which gives it a MPA of 2, or by 3 healthy characters with a MPA of 3. A healthy character may be replaced by 2 wounded characters. Mechanics of movement are similar to horse movement (see 7.6) except that no pivoting is allowed. Before a cart may be pushed, any live or dead animal attached to it must be unstrung, but the characters must not be "strung" to the cart. It costs the characters all MP they have to move the cart (they may make no other move in this movement phase).
Pushing characters may move the cart from any hex ADJACENT to the cart. They must move with it so that they remain exactly in the same relative position to the cart, pay no additional MP cost for their own move, but they may not pass through impassable terrain or hexsides. To determine the path a pushing character takes, think of him as glued to his current position and observe through which hexes he "sweeps" while the cart moves. For straight movement this presents no problems. For forward turning movement of the cart, imagine the cart first moving one hex straight forward and then swinging round 60 degrees, for backward turning movement it will first "swing round" and then move straight.
Animal-drawn carts may enter any terrain that a horse may enter, and at the same cost (see terrain descriptions), but may use only forward movement. A pushed cart may only enter flat ground and yard entrance hexes, but unlike the animal-drawn cart it may use backward movement (at double movement cost, as usual). A cart may never be moved through hexes that contain movement hindrances equivalent to 2 or more characters (see 7.8). A cart makes a hex impassable for any unit except to embark or disembark. It hinders LOS and gives cover like tent terrain. A destroyed cart becomes debris, with the former contents of the cart remaining in their hexes.
Infantry may ride a cart. They may embark or disembark from any ADJACENT hex, and do not change the cart's MPA. The cart may not move in a PT in which characters enter or leave. To enter a cart hex from any ADJACENT hex (even another cart hex) costs 2 MP, but it is only allowed if no other character or baggage is in that hex. Terrain advantage is negative for a character on the cart.
A cart may also transport barrels or chests (max. 4 barrels resp. chests per cart hex, in any combination). No character may enter a cart hex containing any barrel or chest, and vice versa. Loading one barrel into the cart from an ADJACENT hex takes 3 MP (in addition to the MP for carrying the item).


Ships are described in detail in "Viking Raiders". Use those rules for any ship action.


The following list sums up the terrain used on the "Cry Havoc!" mapboards. Behind each terrain name, an example for this terrain on a mapboard is given. Special equipment in a hex may replace the movement, cover and terrain advantage values of a hex. For battering resistance of terrain and equipment, see tables under 26.7. Note: If a terrain is impassable for horses, it is also impassable for oxen, carts, non-portable equipment, and items of similar size. If it is impassable to mules, it is also impassable for all animals. Dogs may use any terrain like infantry except that they may not climb scaling ladders.

In-hex Terrain

Hexside Terrain Features

These "terrain types" are actually extended or special hex borders. For LOS purposes, their depiction on the map is used. The terrain advantage is always the advantage of the in-hex terrain (exception: a window provides an advantage for the defender). Note that a door can be either a hex (as it is in most cases) or a hex border. Combat is not possible across walls without apertures and through arrow slits.

Very Special Terrain


Normally, all water hexes are treated as "bottomless" and are impassable to any unit. Should, however, a character or animal enter a water hex involuntarily, the following procedure shall be used: Animals (not necessarily their riders) and armoured or stunned characters drown immediately and are removed from the map. Bodies, equipment and debris also sink and disappear from the map.
All other characters must make a DR in each own movement phase on the appropriate Swimming Table. Characters adjacent to a bank hexside or adjacent to a ship may attempt to climb out. Climbing out requires a successful "climbing out" DR; movement cost for climbing out is that of the terrain entered plus 2 MP for crossing the bank hexside.
If climbing out exceeds the MPA, the character may climb out anyway but may not move in the next movement phase (this is an exception to 7.3). "Helping" is allowed, and gives both the added MPA and a -2 DRM on the Swimming Table, but costs the complete MPA of the helper (see 12.22 and 26.41). If climbing out is impossible because all ADJACENT hexes are occupied, the swimmer must roll on the appropriate Open Water Table.
If a character is in open water, or the climbing out attempt fails, he is subject to drifting or drowning. Stepping stones might stop a drifting character. If he drifts into them, he immediately takes an additional "climbing out" DR. If climbing out succeeds, he is placed in the stone hex. If it fails, he is immediately placed on the other side of the stones. This counts as 2 hexes drifted, and after that he drifts on to the full amount required by the original swimming DR.

Characters drifting off the map edge disappear from the game and may not return. For victory point purposes, drowned and drifted-off characters are worth the same as wounded characters.

No combat or missile fire is possible from (but to) bottomless water. Characters in water receive medium cover (+2) and are considered in negative terrain if attacked. If a character is under a bridge or footbridge he is out of sight for any unit on the bridge.

SSR may declare water hexes "deep" (3 to 4 feet deep) or "shallow" (1 to 2 feet deep), and the sea floor (16.134) is also "terraced". This means that a character might conceivably stand in the water. Horses are always assumed to be in the deeper of the 2 hexes they occupy. For deep and shallow water some rules are changed:

The spearman special: If you want to hurt someone in the water, the spear is just the weapon for it. Therefore, a spearman who is not in the water himself, and attacks a character in an adjacent deep or bottomless water hex in combat, gets a +1 CS on the attempt, and no results that affect the attacker are taken. In this special case he is not required to be ADJACENT, but he must be same-level (so this would not work from an embattlement against a character in a water-filled moat, for example, but it would be allowed from rocks into the sea, or from a bridge against the river). This kind of attack obviously requires that the spearman still has a spear available.

Special Weapons and Equipment

Equipment may be needed to perform specific actions, and/or to give cover and advantages in combat. It usually is allocated to the players by SSR. For carts, see section 14.; for ships, 15.; for siege equipment, 19.; for laying fire, 20.; for illumination, 21.
Equipment may be destroyed by fire (see 20.) or battering (see 19.3 / 19.4), and by other more arcane methods (e.g. by a portcullis crashing down). Destroyed equipment leaves debris in the hexes it occupied if this is mentioned in the rules for that equipment or if debris is printed on the back of the equipment counter.

Drawbridge and Winch
Raising or lowering a drawbridge or portcullis is a one-turn-task for one healthy character (or the wounded equivalent). To operate the bridge, at least one of the operators must occupy the winch hex, and any other operator must be ADJACENT to it. The lowered bridge is represented by the bridge counter, the raised bridge exists implicitly if the counter is removed, and has the effects of a shut and bolted gate door as long as it remains raised.
The drawbridge may be raised even if occupied by units (note that no siege engines may occupy a drawbridge). The (live or dead) units fall from the bridge into adjacent moat hexes (direction at random), possibly stunning or wounding other characters already there. Falling animals are killed, falling characters receive a "wounded" result (if not falling into water), falling equipment is destroyed. Falling may lead to overstacking; see also 7.21 for the effects of falling.
Should a unit, or part of it, be underneath a lowering drawbridge in filled moat, it is crushed and dies resp. is destroyed immediately. A character in unfilled moat is not affected. Lowering the drawbridge becomes impossible if a siege tower or battering ram is adjacent to the gate door/ raised bridge. No combat is allowed between the lowered bridge and a character in the moat; see 5.59 for LOS effects.
If not specified otherwise by SSR, the same winch that operates the bridge moves the portcullis, too. To move both in the same turn, 2 healthy characters (or the wounded equivalent) have to perform a one-turn-task each, one on the winch hex and the other(s) ADJACENT to it.

The ballista shoots special bolts with great power, and may shoot flaming arrows, too. It is used against characters, animals, and to set equipment aflame. Though historically devised as a siege engine, it is used simply as a strong missile weapon in "cry Havoc!".
The ballista may not be moved during the scenario; it works like a stationary, very strong crossbow. When standing on a rampart it may shoot over the battlement as if it were a courtyard-side rampart edge. It may never occupy interior building hexes or fire through arrow-slits.
A ballista may attack any unit in LOS subject to normal fire rules. It may attack in the crossbow fire phase of every third turn. It needs a crew of 2 active ADJACENT characters to fire or load it, of which at least one must be an engineer. (Loading is a two-turn-task that may be done in two separate one-turn-steps.)
A ballista hex blocks LOS like a building wall, and cannot be entered by any unit. Ballistas start the scenario loaded.

Since the barricade works similar to the "screen", it is described there. See 19.16.

Chests and Treasure
A chest or treasure costs 1 MP to carry. They may also be transported by cart (max. 4 chests per cart hex, see 14).
Treasure my be hidden by SSR, in which case it is a one-turn-task to search the hex the character is in. After that turn, he does find the treasure on a DR of 1 to 7. He may search the same hex repeatedly.

For the illumination capabilities of torches, fires and lanterns see 21., "Night Rules".
Use of lanterns: They start the game lit if not specified otherwise by SSR, and burn throughout the scenario. They are fixed on poles and do not need a character to hold them, may not be moved, but do not hinder movement either. Lanterns may be extinguished by a character in the lantern hex or any ADJACENT hex instead of combat (the character may not be in melee to do this), or by a missile fire "killed" result (on the Infantry Table, not receiving any in-hex cover). The lantern takes no other damage but to go out. Lanterns may be destroyed by a character in the lantern hex instead of combat (again, the character may not be in melee). Destroyed lanterns are removed from the map and do not leave debris. Lanterns may be re-lit by a character in the lantern hex. This is a one-turn-task.

Siege Weapons and Techniques

This term encompasses battering, sapping and mining techniques, and repair and construction work. All this is manual labour; to perform activities described in this section characters must be unmounted. The emphasis is on battering procedures; of sapping and mining work, only a procedure for filling moat terrain is described.

Siege Engines and Equipment
No siege engine may ever occupy a door or house interior hex. Only screens and carried scaling ladders may pass gates.

Scaling Ladder
Ladders have one 2-hex-counter for carrying them, and one 1-hex-counter for the upright status. They may be used to scale embattlements (from the moat or courtyard side).
2 active unmounted characters are needed to carry a ladder; they occupy the ladder hexes while carrying it. While carrying the ladder they have their MPA reduced by 2 points, may not attack in combat or shoot missiles, and defend at half their normal defence value in combat (normal against missile fire). Movement mechanics are like those for horses (see 7.6).
When one or both characters reach a hex adjacent to an embattlement or castle wall they may put up the ladder at a cost of 2 additional MP each. The "carried ladder" is replaced with the "upright ladder" counter and is placed in one of the original counter hexes, adjacent to the wall. The character in that hex must leave that hex at the same time by moving exactly one hex (subject to normal movement limitations, but the cost for this move is included in the cost for putting up the ladder). The ladder replaces the terrain of that hex and may be used for scaling from this moment on.
An upright ladder may be turned in its hex or moved one hex along the wall by 2 characters ADJACENT to it that spend 2 MP each in addition to their own movement cost (to move and turn costs 4 MP + cost of terrain). The upright ladder may not be moved or turned if a character is on it.
Upright ladder hexes may only be used by infantry, at a cost of 3 MP. Only one character at a time can be on the ladder, and characters on the ladder can not be passed by others. Moving into the ladder hex always means climbing the ladder. From the ladder, a character may cross the battlement hexside or rampart edge into the one rampart hex directly in front of the ladder (normal movement and advancing restrictions apply).
A character on a ladder receives no cover; for LOS purposes he is assumed to be at the same level as the adjacent rampart or castle wall. He may not do anything except to move or have combat; in particular, he may not fire missiles. A character on a ladder is in negative terrain.
Stunned characters fall off the ladder; retreat is normal, but may only be downward.

Upright ladders may be toppled by a character in the one rampart hex in front of the ladder. This character may not fire missiles in this turn and may not be in melee except with a character on that ladder. Instead of attacking in combat he tries to topple the ladder. To resolve the attempt he rolls a die; on a DR of 1 to 6 the toppling succeeds, on any other result it fails, and the ladder remains in place.
A character on that ladder is placed at random in one hex ADJACENT to the former base of the ladder, and receives a "wounded" damage. (Falling off the ladder may lead to overstacking, see 7.1) A character hit by a falling character receives a "stunned" damage. A toppled ladder is replaced with a "carried ladder" counter by the player who toppled it. One hex of this counter must be in the hex the upright ladder occupied, the other may be any hex ADJACENT to it. The falling ladder neither causes nor takes damage.
It is allowed, but serves no immediate purpose, to climb up to castle walls (as opposed to embattlements), towers and building walls, as direct movement into or over them is not allowed, and characters on ladders may not even fire missiles. (Maybe the lady of the castle wishes to pass a secret love letter to you through the arrow-slit?)

Siege Tower
The siege tower is special insofar as it has 2 locations in each hex, one under the tower and one above it (the platform). For LOS purposes, characters on the platform are supposed to be at an elevation of 3 above the tower base, and they receive light cover (+1) against any incoming fire regardless of the firer's elevation. Characters under the tower are out of LOS entirely, except from adjacent hexes that are at the same elevation as the tower base; they still receive medium cover (+2) for fire from those hexes.
From any hex ADJACENT to the siege tower infantry may go below the siege tower at a cost of 1 MP, or go to the top level at a cost of 4 MP. Once on the tower, moving on the platform and rearranging characters there is permitted in the movement phase at a global cost of 1 MP per character. No direct movement is allowed between the location "under" the tower and the platform. No animal may enter any siege tower hex.
Characters may leave the platform into any adjacent hex paying normal movement cost if that hex, or its hexsides, do not block movement altogether. The hex moved into may be at any elevation from the tower base to any number of levels above it.
Characters on the tower have a negative terrain modifier in combat, characters under it none. Characters on tower base level may only have combat with characters under the tower, characters at an elevation of 1 or more above the tower base only with those on the platform. No combat is permitted between characters on and under the tower.
A character on the tower retreats normally in principle; if he can not, by any reason, take the full demanded retreat on top of the tower, he will fall into an empty hex ADJACENT to the tower base (attacker's choice) and receives an additional "wounded" damage. If no adjacent hex is empty, he will hit and stun a character in the hex.
To move the siege tower, 3 healthy characters must be under the tower; they may do nothing in their PT but move the tower, and may not be in melee. The tower then has 2 MP available, but it may only move into empty flat ground or filled moat hexes. Movement must be (forward or backward) along straight hex rows. The tower may be pivoted by 60 degrees round its middle hex at a cost of 2 MP. Movement is unimpaired by characters on top of the tower.
The siege tower blocks all LOS over or through its hexes.

Battering Ram
Characters under the ram are out of LOS entirely, except from adjacent hexes that are at the same elevation; they still receive medium cover for fire from those hexes. Characters under the ram have no terrain modifier in combat. From any hex ADJACENT to the ram, infantry may go below it at a cost of 1 MP (there is no such location as "above" the ram). No animal may enter the ram. To operate or move the ram, 3 healthy characters must be under it (no engineer is required). They may not do anything else in their PT, and may not be in melee.
The ram then has 2 MP available, but it may only move into empty flat ground or filled moat hexes. Movement must be (forward or backward) along straight hex rows. The ram may be pivoted by 60 degrees round its middle hex at a cost of 2 MP.
Instead of moving, the ram may batter its front hexside, resp. the hex beyond that hexside. No matter if "offboard" or "onboard" battering is used, the ram batters turn by turn, not day by day. The ram blocks LOS like a building wall.

Trebuchet and Mangonel
For game purposes, these are treated alike except for the different battering and breakdown values and different rate of fire, and are summarily called "catapults" even if this may not be entirely correct technically. Historically, they had more than one purpose, but in "Cry Havoc!" they are used exclusively for battering.
Catapults are stationary throughout the scenario. A catapult hex blocks LOS like a building wall, and cannot be entered by any unit.
For offboard use, one engineer must be available per catapult used or repaired.
For onboard use, the mangonel needs 3 turns (not necessarily consecutive) to load, and it may fire every fourth turn. It requires an ADJACENT crew of 4 active characters, of which at least one must be an engineer.
The trebuchet needs 7 turns to load and may fire every eighth turn in onboard use. It requires a crew of 8 active characters, of which also at least one must be an engineer. The counter orientation of a trebuchet does not indicate a covered arc or such like, it may fire in any direction, but it needs some time to change the target in which it may not fire (see 19.42).

A screen provides heavy cover (+3) for characters in the screen hex, and light cover (+1) for any ADJACENT hex if LOS crosses the screen hex, regardless of elevation. Movement cost into a screen hex is 2 for infantry (impassable for horses). For combat attacks against a screen hex the horse-against-infantry modifier is voided, and terrain advantage is positive for a defender in the screen hex.
Screens are placed at scenario start and may be moved after that by any active character in the screen hex for one hex per movement phase, taking the character's full MPA for that move. They may only be placed and moved on flat ground, bridges (except footbridges), and filled moat. They may be moved through gates, but not through doors.

This is the stationary counterpart to the screen. Barricades provide medium cover for characters in the barricade hexes only, and only for fire crossing one of the 4 barricade front hexsides. Cover is provided regardless of elevation. Movement cost into a barricade hex is 4 when crossing a front hexside and 1 from any other side. Only infantry may occupy a barricade hex. For combat attacks across the front hexsides the horse-against-infantry modifier is voided. Terrain advantage of a barricade hex is positive if defending across a barricade front hexside, it is normal for combat from all other sides.
Barricades are placed at scenario start and may not be moved after that. They may only be placed on flat ground.

Cauldrons of Boiling Water
This is a weapon similar to the "barrels of oil" which are described in 20.2. Cauldrons of boiling water may be emptied from elevated positions into adjacent lower hexes or ladder hexes in an attempt to do harm to enemies. Pouring is not allowed through arrow-slits. The water is poured in the combat phase, and a character emptying a cauldron may not attack in combat in the same turn. Boiling water attacks the target unit with combat odds of 6-1 immediately, and without any modifiers. On "defender" damage results are used. Boiling water only affects characters and animals, but neither equipment nor fires, and units in the battering ram or in or on the siege tower are immune to damage. (Typical use is from ramparts into the moat or against a character on a ladder, or in a gate hex from the rampart into the archway location.)
After the cauldron has been emptied the counter is removed from the map (it is returning to its source "automatically").
It costs 2 MP per movement phase to carry a cauldron. A cauldron dropped involuntarily (as a consequential damage result) is removed from the map, but causes no damage.
SSR should define a hex where the boiling water is prepared and where it may be picked up by the characters. A single source should be allowed to prepare 2 cauldrons per turn, which is the only limitation for the use of boiling water.

Fire was often used as a weapon during sieges. Its use is described in section 20.

Battering: General Rules
Battering may be done by hand, or with siege engines of the trebuchet (19.14), mangonel(19.14), and battering ram (19.13) type. Battering may take a variable number of turns or days, and it usually has partial results expressed in a number of damage points taken. Damage points are accumulated until the "battering resistance" of the target is down to zero, and it collapses.
To provide for different game scales I give two methods of battering: the original, more abstract one for use between scenarios (which I call "offboard battering"), and a direct one which is meant for use in a scenario ("onboard battering"). SSR must decide which method is to be used, but onboard battering by hand is available in all scenarios. Depending on the battering method used, battering and resistance values differ (see Battering Tables for details). Repairs and construction work are also handled differently.
To batter anything with the trebuchet or mangonel siege engines you must have a LOS to the ground level of the battered hex or item. It is sufficient that in principle LOS would be available, not necessarily that it exists from the position of the siege engine or that a character is in a position to actually have LOS (it is assumed that an observer exists somewhere in a suitable position). The same rules apply for using catapults from inside the castle for battering; for example, LOS may exist from a tower while the catapult actually stands in the castle courtyard. No hexes may be attacked that are in a distance of <= 3 hexes to a friendly unit.
An onboard siege engine may only batter wall or building hexes that face towards the engine, and may not fire over intervening towers or siege towers. For offboard battering a general layout should be sketched in small scale, with the positions of siege engines marked, to resolve LOS questions. To batter anything with the battering ram or by hand the unit must be ADJACENT to the target. To batter an in-hex door (16.16) the character must be in the door hex.
The general procedure is the same for the offboard and onboard battering methods: a specific item or hex is attacked with the "battering strength" of the attacking unit(s), and a DR10 or DR6 decides about the damage taken. This damage is subtracted from the current "battering resistance value" of the target. The moment the resistance is down to zero or lower, the item is collapses: walls become rubble, equipment is marked as destroyed, any other unit occupying the hex receives "wounded" damage immediately. Partial results, i.e. a reduced number of resistance points, do not change anything of the battered item's characteristics, nor of its use, nor do they affect units in the target hex, they only cause a reduced time of resistance to the final collapse.
Siege engines may also take another form of damage: "wear" damage is self-inflicted damage resulting from use, not from enemy action. If this occurs, the siege engine must be repaired before further onboard use, or attack with a reduced strength while battering from "offboard".
Embattlements, castle walls, castle towers, building walls, tables, tents, and barricades are attacked "by hex": each battering action must specify a target hex. More than one unit may attack one hex.
For a building wall, the adjacent interior hex is the target hex and is changed to rubble if the wall is destroyed. Window hexsides and door hexes also are regarded "wall hexes" if battering with siege engines. House interior hexes (the roof) also collapse and turn to rubble if no straight "beam" hex row can be traced anymore between two wall hexes of that building room that "supports" the roof hex.
Embattlements and castle walls may be more than 1 hex thick: to obtain a "breach" and LOS through the wall, a continuous "path" of rubble must exist through the wall. "Inner" hexes of that wall may only be attacked after "outer" hexes have been turned to rubble. Once a breach has been achieved, all hexes whose ground level can be seen through the breach (from any position that is not adjacent to the breach) may be battered.
Siege equipment, gate doors, raised drawbridges, portcullis, doors, and windows are battered "by item": regardless which hex or hexside of the target is attacked, the whole item takes the damage, and is destroyed when the battering resistance is exceeded. This causes no damage to ADJACENT units (but units in or on a destroyed cart, siege tower, or battering ram receive "wounded" damage like a unit in a rubbled hex).
Lost battering resistance points and "wear" damage may be repaired (see 19.7 resp. 19.6).

Offboard Battering
This is the original method from "Siege", and may only be used against embattlements, towers, castle walls, and gate doors. It should be used together with the original definition of "days" as given in "Siege" (see 2.81).
This kind of battering comes in two forms: trebuchets and mangonels batter on a day-by-day basis, and only on days that do not see sorties from or attacks on the castle (i.e., they only batter outside of scenarios). Damage points are accumulated over the days. Each siege engine may be either used or repaired on a day of battering, not both. Siege engines and their counters usually appear on the map only for sally scenarios, when the defender tries to destroy them; while actually battering, they take the abstract form of an allotment of battering points (hence the term "offboard").
Subject to the LOS requirements given above, the player may assign the battering points of his siege engines to one or more hexes as he pleases (but may not split points of a single engine between two targets), and may re-assign them freely every day. The availability of one active engineer per engine is required for the operation or repair of trebuchets or mangonels.
The second form of "offboard" battering is, in fact, very much onboard, and this is the battering ram attack which works turn by turn. It still belongs to the offboard category because the rate of battering is balanced with the "genuine" offboard day-bay-day battering.

Regardless if battering with the ram or with catapults, each attempt is resolved on the Offboard Battering Table (per turn and/or per day, as it may be). The number of battering points used against each hex is totalled, a die is rolled, and the result taken from the table. This procedure is repeated for every target hex.
There is a chance that the siege engines themselves take "wear" damage. Such damage is divided among the participating engines at the controlling player's decision (full points only). Even if the battering strength of a siege engine is down to zero it is not regarded as "destroyed" since wear does not result from a conscious effort to put it out of action, but rather is a consequence of use. "Wear" damage only indicates a reduced effectiveness (down to outright ineffectiveness) for offboard battering.

Onboard Battering
Onboard battering was introduced with the in-scenario time scale in mind, to enable players to re-create days of detailed siege action. For multi-day action, it is better adapted to the alternative definition of a "day" as given in 2.82 than to the original definition given in "Siege".
Onboard battering may be done by hand, or with siege engines (trebuchet, mangonel, or battering ram). All targets listed with "battering resistance point values" in table 26.72 may be battered. Battering is not resolved from a table, but applied directly by modifying the battering strength with a die roll and subtracting that number of points from the current battering resistance value. So, success is guaranteed (if variable). The chance of missing is worked into the battering strength values.

Battering by hand
This is a one-turn-task (see 12.1). The result of this task is a loss of battering resistance; it is applied at the end of the PT. The battering strength is the attack strength of the battering character, increased by a DR6. More than one character may attack one hex or item, but all of those must be ADJACENT to the target. Their attack strengths are summed up to one combined strength and then one DR6 is added to obtain the battering damage. Note that this option is not available when battering in-hex doors, since the battering character must occupy the door hex.

Battering with Siege Engines
They attack with the battering attack strength values given in Table 26.72 and add the appropriate DR to obtain the final battering strength. Operating a siege engine is a task (see 12.1). The results are applied at the end of the PT.
Subject to the necessary LOS, any number of siege engines may attack the same target, but all attacks are resolved independently. It takes two turns to assign a new target to a siege engine; the engine must be fully manned during these turns, but may neither batter nor be repaired. The counter orientation of a trebuchet does not indicate a covered arc or such like, it may fire in any direction.
On an original battering DR of 10 the siege engine itself takes DR10 points of "wear" damage after resolving battering damage normally. It must be repaired before further use (see 19.72). (Note that this is a difference to offboard battering, where damaged siege engines may still attack with a reduced strength.)
When switching between offboard and onboard action in a campaign, 1 "wear" damage point taken during offboard battering is carried over as 20 points taken during onboard battering, and 1/20th (all, even tiny, fractions rounded up!) offboard "wear" damage point is assumed for onboard damage taken by any reason. Consequences depend on the current manner of use.

Filling Up the Moat
Filling up the moat was a lengthy process, so if "Filled Moat" terrain is used it will normally be placed by SSR before the game starts. Nevertheless, I give rules for an "offboard" and an "onboard" method for those who wish to simulate this action in the course of the game.
The moat under a drawbridge is usually deeper than elsewhere, so it is more difficult to fill. Water-filled moat is filled like dry moat. There is no way for the defenders to change "filled moat" back to normal moat.
Offboard Action
The attacker should be allowed to fill 1 moat hex of his choice on days that see neither a sortie, nor an attack-against-the-castle scenario, nor battering or repairs. For the filling to become effective, the attacker must make a DR of 1 to 6 (1 to 3 for moat under a drawbridge) after that day, else there is no effect (the defenders were able to hinder the work).
Onboard Action
The attacker has to declare his intention (he is not required to give away the exact hex he wants to fill) and move a screen ADJACENT to a moat hex before the actual filling up may begin. The screen has to be provided by SSR, or must be built beforehand (see 19.8).
It must be kept there one whole day and must be manned by at least four active characters in the screen hex or ADJACENT hexes. Characters that go missing by any reason must be replaced inside 2 turns, and at no moment the screen may be manned by less than 2 characters, or the work for this day will be ineffective. Movement, cover and combat influence of the screen are as described in 19.15. The use of additional screens is allowed, but the player must declare which screen is actually used for sapping.
If the above conditions are fulfilled, the screen is advanced into the moat on the evening (movement rules do not apply for this advance, the screen is just symbolic for sapping work under cover). Again, it must again be kept undestroyed and manned by four characters for one day.
If successful, the screen is removed and a filled moat counter placed at the evening of that day. If the moat was under a drawbridge location, an additional DR of 1 to 5 is required to succeed.
If the filling up action of any day did not succeed, the screen remains in place and the action for that day has to be repeated until it is completed before work may continue. If the screen is destroyed, the process has to start again from the very beginning.
The attacker may work on more than one hex at a time if he likes to (and allocates enough characters to each hex).

Offboard Repairs
On days that of battering action, the attacker may declare that one or more specified siege engines do not take part in the battering but will be repaired instead. Each engine under repair requires an engineer to supervise the work (so the number of available engineers limits the battering and/or repair action). The engine is brought back to its original battering strength at the end of that day.

Onboard Repairs
Repairs may undo partial battering or "wear" damage done to equipment, walls or doors, or may reinforce a building door to the keep door class by adding the difference of battering resistance points. Destroyed items may never be repaired again.
Repair is assumed to be done mainly by helping hands that do not actually appear on the map, but the presence of specialists or additional characters may be needed or helpful. Repairs are done turn by turn and come into effect at the end of the PT. Repair work is a task for the units allocated to it. Required or additional characters must spend the complete turn ADJACENT to the item, else the repair attempt is ineffective resp. the helper is useless for that turn. For obtaining the DRMs, each allocated knight, sergeant or engineer counts as 2 "additional characters". No character may be allocated to more than one repair attempt at a time.
Only items listed below may be repaired, and never to battering resistance values above their original value:

Building Siege Engines and Barricades
This is only possible by SSR (see also Scenario Book 2 for details). All building may only be done on flat ground (exception: ballistas may also be built on ramparts).
As a rule of thumb, it takes 6 days to build a trebuchet, 4 days to build a mangonel or ballista, 10 days to build a siege tower or ram. All this requires the presence of one engineer per engine built, and 3 additional characters per hex the completed engine will occupy. For example, to build a siege tower takes 1 engineer plus 9 other characters who have to work for 10 (not necessarily consecutive) days to complete the tower.
On one day 6 ladders or 3 screens may be built, or 3 new building doors or window shutters, or 1 keep door. 2 characters must be allocated to build any of these "sets".
Tents may be built in any number per day, but 2 characters per tent hex must be allocated to the task.


All siege engines, ladders, screens, barricades, tents, and carts are inflammable. No other terrain or equipment burns.
Inflammable terrain or equipment may be set on fire (kindled) from any ADJACENT hex by a foot character. This is a one-turn-task and does not require special equipment; roll a die and look up the result on the Fire Table (26.5). The burning item is marked with a fire marker at the end of the turn if the kindling attempt succeeded. A character may also try to set equipment aflame with the aid of torches, barrels of oil, or flaming arrows (see below).
At the start of a GT roll a die for each inflammable hex that is adjacent to a fire and consult the Fire Table to see if the fire spreads. Check once for each adjacent fire.
A fire that has burnt for 5 complete GT goes out, leaving the burning item (and its contents, in case of carts) destroyed.
No unit may enter a fire hex. A unit that finds itself (even partially) in a fire hex must withdraw in its next movement phase, or retreat after the next enemy combat phase, whichever comes first. If leaving the fire is not possible because of movement restrictions, the unit is killed in the fire. Neutral characters and animals move in the next movement phase of any player, use retreat preferences for the direction of this move (see 10.2), move only as far as necessary and are otherwise directed by the active player.
An active character may try to put out (douse) a fire in one ADJACENT hex. This is a one-turn-task. He needs no special equipment to do that. More than one dousing attempts may be made in one turn against the same fire by different characters. At the end of the PT roll a die for each attempt and refer to the Fire Table.
If a fire is doused, the burning item has lost 1/5 of its onboard battering resistance points for every turn it burned.

Barrels of Oil
This is a weapon similar to the "cauldrons of boiling water" which are described in 19.17, but in addition it may start fires.
Barrels of burning oil may be thrown from same-level or elevated positions into adjacent same-level or lower hexes in an attempt to do harm to enemies and/or set equipment on fire. Throwing is not allowed through arrow-slits. The barrel is thrown in the combat phase, and a character throwing a barrel may not attack in combat in the same turn.
A barrel of oil thrown from an elevated position attacks a unit that is not in or on a siege tower or battering ram with combat odds of 8-1 immediately, and without any modifiers. Only "defender" damage results are used.
A barrel thrown on inflammable terrain or equipment may set it aflame. Check this on the Fire Table. If a siege tower or battering ram was attacked from an elevated position and did catch fire, all characters in or on it are also attacked by the burning oil with 6-1 odds on the Combat Table (again, without any modifiers).
A barrel of oil may also be used as auxiliary equipment when trying to kindle a fire (as opposed to throwing the barrel). In this case it gives a helpful DRM to the attempt (see Kindling Table 26.52).
If the oil did not set anything aflame, the counter is removed from the map, else it is turned to show the "fire" side.
It costs a character 2 MP per movement phase to carry a barrel. A barrel dropped involuntarily (as a consequential damage result) is removed from the map, but causes no damage.
SSR must give the supply of barrels available, and the storage location. Note that oil is a valuable material, and it usually has not been stored in great quantities. Barrels may be transported in a cart, with max. 4 barrels per cart hex (see 14).

Flaming Arrows
Shortbowmen, longbowmen, and ballistas may fire flaming arrows subject to normal LOS and missile rules, but only at short range. Flaming arrows never cause damage to characters, but may set inflammable terrain or equipment on fire.
The Missile Fire Tables are not used, instead the player rolls a die, and hits with a result of 1 to 5 (1 to 6 for ballista fire). A miss causes no effect whatever (except spending ammunition). If the arrow hit, the player rolls on the Kindling Table (26.52) to check if the item does catch fire. This procedure is repeated for every arrow.

Torches may be used for illumination or for kindling inflammable items. The kindling procedure is identical to the normal kindling task, but if a character places a burning torch in the target hex the attempt will receive a helpful DRM (see Kindling Table 26.52). Torches my not be thrown.
A torch may be extinguished by a character carrying the torch (or occupying a hex with a torch) in the combat phase, but only if he is not in melee. He may not do anything else in that combat phase. Extinguished torches are removed from play and may not be lit again. One or more torches may be carried by infantry without additional movement cost; if dropped, they continue to burn, but do not cause damage or start fires. To fix a torch into a holder (see 21.32) costs 2 MP, to pick it up from the holder 1 MP. Placing a torch in an ADJACENT hex for kindling is part of the task and costs no extra MP.

Campfires may exist or be created by SSR. They only serve as illumination (see 21.31).

Night Rules

There are few rule differences between day and night scenarios: a hindered LOS, hindered movement, a missile fire DRM, and a DRM for panic determination.

LOS to illuminated hexes is determined exactly as in daytime scenarios. To non-illuminated (dark) areas, LOS is limited to a 3-hex-range. Only the illumination state of the target hex is relevant for LOS. A hex is illuminated if at least its centre is hit by light, a hexside is illuminated if one of the adjacent hexes is illuminated.

At night, movement costs are doubled for non-illuminated hexes and hexsides after all other modifications. In effect, this may make certain terrain types impassable.

Hexes may be illuminated by fires, campfires, torches, lanterns, or from the interior of illuminated buildings. All light sources (excluding fires started for damage purposes) burn throughout the scenario if not extinguished on purpose. Objects that block LOS of course block light as well. They also throw shadows: if a hex centre is out of LOS from a "light source" hex, the hex is in the shadow, i.e. dark.
Campfires and fireplaces for illumination may exist in flat ground or building interior hexes designated by SSR. They may not be adjacent to inflammable material and may be doused or re-kindled in these hexes by normal fire rules (see 20.).
Torches illuminate the torch hex and all adjacent hexes if carried by a character or fixed to a holder. If dropped, they illuminate only their own hex. Holders for torches implicitly exist on all interior building or castle wall hexsides. To fix a torch into a holder costs 2 MP, to pick it up from the holder 1 MP.
Lanterns illuminate their own hex and all adjacent hexes.
All kinds of fires illuminate their own hex and all adjacent hexes.
Light from buildings illuminates the door hex or, if the door is a hexside, the exterior hex(es) adjacent to the door, and the exterior hex(es) adjacent to windows. Similarly, exterior sources of light might illuminate interior hexes adjacent to windows and doors. SSR determine if a building is lit, and in a lit building every hex may be implicitly regarded as a source of light. To extinguish or re-start the light in one building room an active character must spend one task turn in that room.

At night, there is a -1 DRM to every panic DR, regardless of illumination. Only Ninja and Assassin units are immune to this DRM.

Optional Rules

These rules enhance realism of play at the cost of increased bookkeeping and perhaps a slower flow of the game. At least the ammunition limitation rule is highly recommended for use.

Changing Initiative
In "Outremer", the proposal is made to abandon the system of strictly alternating PTs. At the beginning of each new game turn, both sides roll a die, and the side with the higher DR gets the first PT in this GT. The player that played first in the last GT gets a -1 DRM on his next DR for every consecutive GT in which he played first (so, if he had 3 "first to go" GT, his DR on turn 4 would get a -3 DRM).
(I do not know if this rule was a success, for it did not reappear in "Viking Raiders".)

Ammunition limitation
If this rule is used, the missile supply for each character is monitored by the controlling player; he is not required to inform his opponent of his ammunition situation. Once ammunition runs has run out, no more missile attacks my be made by this character until ammunition supply has been replenished, but his combat values are not affected.
At scenario start, initial ammunition supply is determined at random for each character individually. Archers and crossbowmen receive a number of arrows/bolts equal to 3DR10. Ninjas receive 2DR10 shuriken throwing knives. Slingers and siege engines always have unlimited ammunition, assassins have limited ammunition even by the normal rules (2 daggers). Spearmen who are allowed to throw their weapon by SSR have 1 spear if SSR do not say otherwise. Ammunition may be exchanged between any number of ADJACENT friendly characters, or taken from any one inactive friend or enemy in the same or an ADJACENT hex, or taken from scenario-defined supply sources, at the end of the combat phase. A characters may only take or exchange ammunition if he did not fire a missile or move or have combat during this PT, and if he is not ADJACENT to an active enemy. Only characters using the same type of ammunition may exchange it (note that longbows and shortbows use the same ammunition).

Command Control
If this rule is used, most characters require a leader to perform certain actions. Active knights and sergeants may provide this leadership, i.e. exercise "command control" over other characters.
A sergeant may control characters within a 4-hex-radius, regardless of LOS between them, but he may give control only to characters assigned explicitly to him by the scenario set-up or the player. No more than 20 characters may be assigned to one sergeant.
A knight may control any number of characters within a 6-hex-radius, regardless of LOS between them. He may give control to any character.
Knights, Sergeants, Assassins and Ninjas never need control to act.
A character is in control if he is in the control radius of his assigned sergeant, or of any knight.
Command control is checked at the beginning of each movement phase. Any character not under control may act normally with the following exceptions: he may not move into a hex ADJACENT to an enemy, he may only attack units he is already in melee with, and he may begin no new tasks. He may, however, continue to fight existing melees, continue to work on tasks, may use missile fire as he pleases, and will defend normally.
Command control may be lost by moving away from the commander, or by the commander retreating, being killed, captured, etc. Control is regained automatically once the character is in the command radius of his assigned sergeant, or of any knight, again. Alternative LOS
The manner of determining LOS as described in 5. is a concession to playability. Instead of determining LOS from any part of the viewer's hex to any part of the target hex, it may be determined from the centre of both hexes. LOS determination from windows, doors and arrow slits remains unchanged. This rule not only makes LOS checks more difficult, but also makes terrain much more restrictive and may change the balance of scenarios.

Missile Shower
Whenever medium or long range archery or crossbow fire has a "no effect" result, one of the six surrounding hexes is immediately determined at random as the target of a secondary attack. If the selected hex is not adjacent to the original target hex or contains no vulnerable unit, there is no effect. Otherwise this hex is attacked immediately by stray fire (even if it is the second hex of the same rider, or if it contains a friendly unit). A new DR is made, but the fire is resolved using the original DRM. If the result is any other than "no effect", the target receives a "defender retreat 1 hex" result (with possible consequential damage).
This rule tries to simulate the "missile shower" tactics that were used in many medieval battles. Before you decide to use it, try it out for one or two turns to grasp its impact.

Combat priority
Under this rule, any knight will always make ADJACENT knights his combat priority. If he is ADJACENT to a knight, he may only attack this knight, and/or any character(s) he is currently in melee with. Note that he is not forced to attack the knight, and that he may even withdraw from melees, but if he does attack any character at all, combat priority must be observed. If more than one knight is ADJACENT, only one of them must be attacked.

Ransom and Surrender
Only knights and civilians may surrender under this rule, all other character classes receive no quarter except by SSR. (There is another surrender possibility under the panic rule that may affect any character, see 22.9.) A character may offer surrender more than once in a scenario, but if he is a soldier it may only be accepted once.
A knight may only surrender to another knight that could attack him (alone or with other characters) at overwhelming odds. If he is in a combat situation with final odds of 8-1 or worse against him, and has no friendly character in an ADJACENT hex to support him, he may roll a die if he wants to surrender. The attacker (except berserk) must accept the surrender on a DR of 1,2,3 or 4. On any other DR the attacker may accept the surrender or not, at his choice.
A civilian must surrender to any soldier ADJACENT to him if he has 6-1 odds against him at least, or if any two soldiers are ADJACENT. Surrender is allowed, but not required, if the civilian has a friendly soldier ADJACENT or in the same room of a building with him (neutral characters will surrender in this case). The attacker (except berserk) must always accept surrender of women, and from any other civilian on a DR of 1,2 or 3.
A surrendering rider dismounts. The prisoner is marked with an appropriate ransom counter (healthy: a:8, d:6, wounded: a:4, d:3), and retains his MPA. His attack and defence values will remain those of the ransom counter (or his own, whichever is less) until the end of the scenario under all circumstances. As long as a character remains prisoner he is regarded inactive. A captured berserk no longer takes rage DRs until he returns to "active" status.
A surrendered knight must be guarded at minimum by one knight or sergeant, or by 2 soldiers of any type. Any other surrendered soldier must be guarded by any one soldier, and any one soldier may guard up to 2 civilians.
A guard must be ADJACENT to the prisoner and not in melee to take up his duty, and from then on leads the prisoner(s). The movement mechanics of this work like leading an animal, but there is no MP cost to take up the guard duty. Though a prisoner may be transferred between guards any number of times in a PT, he never may exceed his MPA. A retreating guard lets go of the prisoner before retreating. Both riders and infantry may be used as guards, but a mounted guard must keep a prisoner in an ADJACENT side hex to guard them.
A prisoner may never be attacked. A prisoner may attempt to escape by one of two methods:
a) If his guard(s), or any unit that could act as a guard, are not ADJACENT to the prisoner in sufficient strength in the prisoner's movement phase, he may attempt to escape by moving in any direction that leads away from the nearest enemy character. This move is performed like any other movement except that it may not use hexes ADJACENT to an enemy. This method is available to soldiers and civilians. The escape succeeds if the escape move ends in a hex not ADJACENT to any enemy character.
b) A soldier may also attempt to escape when his guard (or part of it) is attacked in combat. He may join the attackers in multiple combat against the guards. If, however, this combat ends with the guard (or enemy characters that could act as a guard) still at >= minimum strength ADJACENT to him, and himself not ADJACENT to a friendly character, the attempt failed.
A prisoner does not have to attempt escape; he may decide to stay in his hex without participating in combat, or he may even move towards an enemy, to keep his word of honour (or to save his skin). (To avoid confusion, the controlling player should declare this intention.)
When a prisoner escaped or tried to escape, his escort or any other enemy may attack him as they please. He has forfeited his right to quarter. If he is a soldier, he may not be ransomed again in that scenario or campaign. After escaping, the character is controlled by the original player again, and may act normally, but he still uses the same strength values he had as a prisoner until the end of the scenario.

Hidden set-up
SSR may allow a player to set up units without actually placing them on the map. Thus, they are hidden from view for the other player until he "stumbles" upon them.
Hidden set-up has some restrictions, though: Hidden set-up is only possible in trees, in slope hexes, in any kind of building or yard, tents, and in any terrain that would receive at least medium cover, or be entirely out of sight, from any point of the map. (Note that the last condition usually makes huge parts of the map available for hidden set-up, but that most of this is lost once the first enemy enters the map.)
Hidden units must be revealed immediately if an enemy moves adjacent to the tree or tent. In other terrain infantry must be revealed if any enemy moves into a position that would allow him to fire at the hidden unit with less than medium cover (note that the unit is not required to be a missileman; the check even works if the player actually does not have any missileman, it is purely hypothetical). Cavalry, horses, oxen, carts, siege engines and all non-portable equipment must be revealed the moment an enemy gets a LOS to it, regardless of cover. A hidden unit reveals itself once it takes any action at all.
When hidden units are discovered the player may change the plotted actions for those units that actually discovered them, or would themselves have discovered them by their own plotted move, and only from the point of discovery on. The plotted actions of other units remain unchanged even if they are able to see the discovered units. (Of course, this requires an additional exchange of messages.)
If a hidden unit attacks an enemy by missile fire or in combat this creates an "ambush" situation in that PT, with consequences for panic resolution. If a unit is discovered and attacks in the next PT, this is no ambush. If a group of hidden and visible units combines to a combat attack, it is only an ambush if more than half of the participating attack points were hidden until the moment of attack.

Panic and Rout
Panic is a possible result of combat or missile fire damage, and rout is a more severe form of panic. Both mean that your stalwart men (and women) no longer obey your orders; probably the shock that hit them reminded them that just staying alive could be an objective of its own.
Panic can be caused if

When any of these things happens, roll a die for each character affected, and look up the Panic Table (26.8) to see what happens. At night, panic determination die rolls get a -1 modifier (exception: Ninjas, Assassins). For panic and rout determination, embattlements, castle walls, and arrow-slit walls, and every area protected (at least partially) by such terrain, are called fortifications and provide a favourable DRM. The DRM for panicked characters are taken according to the situation of that moment, so a panicking character would increase the chances of further panic even in the same turn.

Effects of panic: The character immediately retreats 3 hexes or his full MPA, whichever is less. If forced to retreat ADJACENT to an enemy, or if unable to retreat the full amount required, the panic becomes a rout immediately (this replaces the normal "failure to retreat" penalty). Otherwise, the retreat follows the retreat rules (see 10.2).
The panicked character continues to retreat the required amount in every own movement phase from then on. He will always move away from the majority of the enemies that are currently visible to him.
A panicking character immediately drops all items that cost MP to carry them. He never attacks in combat or by missile fire. If he is attacked, the attacker gets a +1 CS, and no results adverse to the attacker apply.
Panic status ends immediately when either a knight or a sergeant are ADJACENT to the character at the end of the player's movement step, or the panicked character is out of LOS of all enemies, or at least 6 hexes away from the nearest enemy, at the end of his movement phase.

Effects of rout: The character behaves like a panicked character in all respects except that he uses his full MPA in every retreat movement. If forced to rout ADJACENT to an enemy character he will surrender to this character immediately.
Rout status ends immediately when either a knight or a sergeant are ADJACENT to the character at the end of the player's movement phase. If panicking or routing characters move off the map, they can not return to this scenario. However, they do not count as casualties for victory conditions unless they are wounded.
To find out if such a unit might reappear in a later scenario of a campaign or siege, roll on the "Healing Table" (26.6) and use the time given there as the time of absence.

Scenario Set-up

A scenario set-up must state:

  1. 1. Map: mapboard name(s), and configuration (for example, "side 3 of mapboard "Village" butted to side 5 of mapboard "Crossroads"), preferably with coordinates of one or two reference points to make sure everyone uses the same map. (This is especially important in configurations with shifted mapboard edges, which are used in at least one "Viking Raiders" scenario.)
  2. 2. Compass points (e.g. "side 1 of the "Village" is the north side").
  3. 3. The set of rules used. If not specified otherwise, the rules are used as written here, and the rules booklets are not used anymore. Additional or optional rules must be agreed upon beforehand (or later by mutual consent, of course).
  4. 4. Scenario Special Rules (SSR).
  5. 5. Order of Battle of each side, and Command Control information, if used and defined by scenario. Also special equipment of each side.
  6. 6. Set-up for all parties, and sequence of action (who starts, and who is scenario attacker and defender).
  7. 7. Victory conditions and game length (end condition, or so many GT).
  8. 8. If necessary, notes and examples.

If Command Control is used, and groups are not defined in the set-up, each player must describe the grouping of his men in his first PT.

Of course, as atmosphere is important in "Cry Havoc!", you should embroider all this with some background story, as it is done in the original scenarios.

Victory conditions
If no other conditions are described, the victory is determined by comparing victory point values. Victory points are given as follows:

Each knight killed 5 VP (wounded: 3)
Each peasant killed 2 VP (wounded: 1)
Each other character killed 3 VP (wounded: 2)
Ballista or mangonel destroyed 4 VP
Trebuchet destroyed 6 VP
Siege tower or battering ram destroyed 10 VP
Each tent hex destroyed 1 VP

Additional VP are usually awarded if certain scenario-specific results are achieved.

Campaign Games

Campaign rules and scenario generation are described extensively and in great detail in the "Outremer" game, and touched upon in "Dark Blades". In "Viking Raiders" some scenarios contain a lot of ideas that could be included in a campaign game. Please use these rules for the time being.
"Outremer" describes how (randomly generated) incidences befall a group of travellers on their way to the Holy Land, and includes a Scenario Generation System that can easily be transformed for European or Japanese use. Details are given down to the cost for the upkeep of characters and payment of mercenaries, and are complemented by tables giving the amount of booty that can be expected from pillaged towns and camps.
"Dark Blades" plays in a fantasy environment and lets you fight through skirmishes in the struggle for Labrynthia. There is no real campaign system included, but a detailed description of the country, and the "historic" background, to let the player invent his own scenarios in addition to those included in the game. Both games include smaller-scale maps to provide the background for scenario generation.
The Scenario Book 2 (published in 1986) contains a wealth of ideas for campaign games, and includes a siege campaign, too.

Character Advancement
After every scenario played, characters might have gained experience and prestige- or lost it. "Outremer" gives differentiated Character Advancement Tables that may be used to modify strength values after successful (or disastrous) encounters, and even to climb up on the social ladder. To give you an idea how the system works, here is an excerpt as published in the Scenario Book 2:

Defeat a knight +2
Defeat a sergeant or squire +1.5
Defeat a superior man-at-arms +1
Defeat an equal or inferior man-at-arms +0.5
Capture a knight (not stunned) +3
Capture a sergeant or squire (not stunned) +2
Capture a man-at-arms (not stunned) +1
Defeated by a knight -0.5
Defeated by a sergeant or squire -0.5
Defeated by a superior man-at-arms -1
Defeated by an equal or inferior man-at-arms -1.5
Defeated by peasants -2.5
Captured -2

Only combat results count, not achievements by missile fire. In multiple combat, only the strongest character of each side is regarded as the opponent, and also gets the reward points.
For every 2 attack points 1 defence point is won resp. lost; only full points are awarded after each scenario, fractions are carried over on a side record. Characters whose attack values would exceed the maximum value of their character class (as per 25.2 and 25.3), or fall below the minimum value, are promoted to the next (highest being sergeant) resp. degraded to the next lower class (down to peasant). For this purpose, classes are knight, sergeant, halberdier, billman, missileman/ spearman, peasant.
A sergeant who wants to become a knight must not only exceed the maximum point value, but must also have done a special feat of arms or deed of valour in the last scenario, and in addition make a DR of 1 to 5. While he remains sergeant, his attack and defence values may not exceed the highest values of the sergeant class plus one. If rejected, he may again apply for knighthood after each new scenario played if he fulfils the conditions.

Healing Wounds
Characters may recover from wounds after some days. At the end of each day, roll a die for the characters newly wounded that day, and look up the Healing Table to find out the number of days the healing will take. "Many Months" means that healing will, if ever, take only place after the end of the campaign. After the specified number of days, the character is regarded as "healthy" in every respect. The character may act normally in the healing time; this has no influence on the healing process.

Design Your Own Scenarios

Well, go ahead and do just that. Ideas for this may be taken from the additional scenario booklets (especially the Scenario Book 2 contains a lot of ideas and hints), and in the campaign rules of "Outremer", or from any old romantic book you might possess.
The MPA allowances and strength values given below might be used to compare relative strengths, and to provide realistic strength value ranges for the character classes. They are also needed for character advancement (see 24.1). Unit values are used to estimate the relative overall value of troops, and to help create balanced scenarios. If no unit value is given, one might calculate new values for all units using either the attack value for this purpose or, as I would prefer to do, the sum of attack and defence values of the unit. If the optional panic rule is used, morale should be added, too. Note that circumstances or victory conditions might favour one side, and therefore require different total point values available to each side.

Generic MPA values for healthy characters (wounded infantry = halved MPA, fractions rounded down):

Unarmoured infantry 6 to 8
Armoured infantry 6
Dismounted knights 4
Unarmoured muslim cavalry 12 to 15
Other unarmoured cavalry 10 to 12
Armoured muslim cavalry 10 to 12
Other armoured cavalry 8

Generic strength values for European characters:

Caparisoned knight, mounted 27/13 14/6 40
Caparisoned knight, foot 13/11 7/5 20
Holy Order knight, mounted 24-36/10-22 12-18/5-11
Holy Order knight, foot 12-18/8-14 6-9/4-7
Other knight, mounted 22/10 11/5 33
20-30/8-18 10-15/4-9
Other knight, foot 11/9 6/4 16
10-15/7-12 5-7/3-6
Squire, mounted 12-20/6-11 6-10/3-5
Squire, foot 6-10/5-7 3-5/2-3
Sergeant, mounted 16-24/7-12 8-12/3-6
Sergeant, foot 11/9 6/4 11
8-12/6-8 4-6/3-4
Turcopole, mounted 12-18/6-10 6-9/3-5
Turcopole, foot 6-9/5-7 3-4/2-3
Halberdier 11/7 6/4 11
8-12/6-8 4-6/3-4
Billman 10/7 5/3 10
7-10/6-7 3-5/3
Spearman 7/6 4/3 7
5-9/5-7 2-4/2-3
Shortbowman 6/5 3/3 18
5-7/4-5 2-3/2
Crossbowman, armoured 6/6 3/3 20
Crossbowman, unarmoured 6/4 3/2 18
5-7/4-6 2-3/2-3 for both
Longbowman 6/5 3/3 24
5-7/4-5 2-3/2
Peasant 5/4 2/2 3
2-5/2-3 1-2/1
Civilian 2/2 1/1 1

Generic strength values for Muslim characters:

Armoured Mamluk, mounted 20-30/8-18 10-15/4-9
Armoured Mamluk, foot 10-15/7-12 5-7/3-6
Unarmoured Mamluk, mounted 12-22/5-15 6-11/2-7
Unarmoured Mamluk, foot 6-11/4-9 3-5/2-4
Syrian Cavalryman, mounted 10-18/5-10 5-9/2-5
Syrian Cavalryman, foot 5-9/4-6 2-4/2-3
Seljuk Cavalryman, mounted 12-20/5-10 6-10/2-5
Seljuk Cavalryman, foot 6-10/5-7 3-5/2-3
Bedouin tribesman, mounted 8-14/5-9 4-7/2-4
Bedouin tribesman, foot 4-7/4-6 2-3/2-3
Horse archer, mounted 8-12/5-7 4-6/2-3
Horse archer, foot 4-6/4-5 2-3/2
Fatimid spearman 5-8/5-6 2-4/2-3
Syrian spearman 5-9/5-7 2-4/2-3
Seljuk infantry 5-8/5-6 2-4/2-3
Assassin 4-12/3-8 2-6/1-4
Armoured crossbowman 5-7/5-6 2-3/2-3
Unarmoured crossbowman 5-7/4-5 2-3/2
Sudanese bowman/spearman 6-8/4-5 3-4/2
Slinger 4-6/4-5 2-3/2
Peasant 2-6/2-3 1-3/1


Note: If odds or final DR results exceed the table limit, the maximum resp. minimum odds of the tables are used. A final DR of less than 1 is treated as 1, and of more than 10 as 10. In other words, tables are not extrapolated. DRM are cumulative if not stated otherwise in the rules (e.g., only one cover DRM may be used at a time).

Result short signs:
ak : attacker killed
aw : attacker wounded
a4 : attacker retreat 4 hexes
a2 : attacker retreat 2 hexes
a1 : attacker retreat 1 hex
- : no effect
d1 : defender retreat 1 hex
d2 : defender retreat 2 hexes
d4 : defender retreat 4 hexes
ds : defender stunned
dw : defender wounded
dk : defender killed
* : horse killed
Horses are only harmed if explicitly stated, but they will retreat together with the rider of course, and determine the MPA of a mounted character for retreats.

Missile attacks

Firer- and weapon-based modifiers

Shortbow +2 1-15 16-25 26-75
Mounted shortbow +2 1-12 13-35 36-55
Mounted shortbow, moving +4 1-12 13-35 36-55
Longbow +1 1-30 31-60 61-120
Mounted longbow +1 1-20 21-40 41-80
Mounted longbow, moving +3 1-20 21-40 41-80
Crossbow 0 1-25 26-50 51-90
Ballista -2 1-50 51-100 101-175
Sling +1 1-15 16-30 31-50
Spear +2 1-8 9-15 16-30
Dagger +1 1-3 4-6 7-9
Shuriken 0 1-2 3-4 5-6
Firer wounded +2

Each weapon gets two DRM, one for weapon type and one for range. The "moving" modifiers are valid if the firer spent MP in this turn for any purpose before he fired.

Target-based modifiers

Light cover +1
Medium cover +2
Heavy cover +3
Target is armoured +1
Night +1 (only if target is in non-illuminated hex)
Moving target +1 (only if target moved >= 7 hexes in last PT)

Missile Fire Table

DR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Infantry target dk dk dk dw dw d2 d2 - - -
Mounted target or animal dk *dw dw dw *ds d4 - - - -

Knife and shuriken throwing

DR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Any target dk dk dk dk dw dw - - - -

Horses and oxen do not take damage from throwing knives, other animals are only affected by a "killed" result.


Column Shifts (+1 = shift right, -1 = shift left)

Attack against panicked character +1
Infantry attacks mounted character -1
Infantry tries to pin mounted character -1
Mounted character attacks Infantry +1
Encircled attacker -1
Encircled defender +1
Attacker in negative terrain -1
Attacker in positive terrain +1
Defender in negative terrain +1
Defender in positive terrain -1
Spearman vs. unit in water +1 (see 17.5)

All CS are cumulative. Note that both the attacker's and the defender's terrain modifier are taken into account.

Combat against mounted target, or against animal

1-4 - 1-3 1-2 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 6-1 7-1 8-1 9-1 10-1 11-1 +
1 a1 a1 d1 d1 dw dw *dw dk *dk *dk *dk *dk *dk *dk
2 a1 a1 a1 d1 d1 *ds dw *dw dk dk dk dk *dk *dk
3 a1 a1 a1 a1 d1 d1 *ds dw *dw *dw dk dk dk *dk
4 a1 aw a1 a1 a1 d1 d1 *ds dw dw *dw *dw dk dk
5 aw aw aw aw aw a1 d1 d1 *ds dw dw *dw *dw dk
6 aw aw aw - - aw a1 d1 d 1*ds dw dw *dw *dw
7 aw ak - - - - aw a1 d1 d1 *ds dw dw *dw
8 ak - - - - - - aw a1 d1 d1 *ds dw dw
9 ak - - - - - - - - - d1 d1 *ds *ds
10 - - - - - - - -- - - - d1 d1 d1

Combat against infantry

1-4 - 1-3 1-2 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 5-1 6-1 7-1 8-1 9-1 10-1 11-1 +
1 a1 a1 d1 d1 dw dw dk dk dk dk dk dk dk dk
2 a1 a1 a1 d1 d1 dw dw dk dk dk dk dk dk dk
3 a1 a1 a1 a1 d1 ds dw dw dw dk dk dk dk dk
4 a1 aw a1 a1 a1 d1 ds dw dw dw dk dk dk dk
5 aw aw aw aw aw d1 d1 ds ds dw dw dk dk dk
6 aw aw aw - - a1 d1 d1 ds ds dw dw dk dk
7 aw ak - - - aw a1 d1 d1 ds ds dw dw dk
8 ak - - - - - aw a1 d1 d1 ds ds dw dk
9 ak - - - - - - aw a1 d1 d1 d1 ds dw
10 - - - - - - - - - d1 d1 d1 d1 dw

Swimming Animals, and stunned or armoured characters, drown immediately. Wounded characters use a +2 DRM on all Swimming Tables. Ninja and Assassins use a -2 DRM on all Swimming Tables.

Adjacent to River or Pool Bank or Ship; Climbing out

DR 1,2,3,4 : may climb out
5 to 10 : roll again on appropriate Open Water Table
Climbing out may be helped by another character which gives a -2 DRM on this table and also adds 2 MP to the climbing character's MPA, but the helping character uses all of his MP for the help (see 17.).

Pool or Sea Open Water

DR 1,2,3 : move 2 hexes towards the nearest bank or shingle
DR 4,5 : float (do not move)
DR 6,7,8 : move 2 hexes away from the nearest bank or shingle
DR 9,10 : drown

River Open Water

DR 1,2,3,4 : move 4 hexes downstream
DR 5,6,7,8 : move 6 hexes downstream
DR 9,10 : drown

Fire Table

Fire Fire spreads into an adjacent inflammable hex on a DR of 7 to 10.

Successful on a DR of 1,2,3 with the following cumulative DRM:
Flaming Arrows : no DRM
Kindling as a task, without equipment : -3
Kindling by thrown barrel of oil : -4
Kindling as a task using torch or barrel of oil : -5
Kindling attempt against siege tower or battering ram : +2
Flaming arrows need to obtain a hit before they may kindle anything. They make an additional DR and hit on a 1 to 5 if shot by archers, or 1 to 6 if shot by a ballista.


Successful on a DR of 1,2,3 (on 1,2,3,4,5 if the fire was caused by a flaming arrow).

Healing Table

Number of days needed for healing (also used for time of re-appearance of routed characters)

DR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-10
Days 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 many months (i.e. after end of campaign)

Battering Tables

Offboard battering

Battering Strength Values:
Mangonel : 1 (1 DR every day)
Trebuchet : 3 (1 DR every day)
Battering Ram : 9 (1 DR every GT)
DRM : -1 if hex is tower or keep hex
Battering Damage:

Battering strength points
used on the hex
1 3 6 9 12+
1 W1 W1 W2 W3 W4
2 - - W1 W2 W3
3 - - - W1 D+W2
4 - - - - D+W1
5 - - - D D
6 - - - D D
7 - - D D D
8 - - D D D
9 - D D D D
10 D D D D D

Result explanation:
Wn = number of battering points lost due to "wear" damage (engine was damaged, loses "n" battering strength points, and attacks with the reduced strength until repaired).
D = apply damage to the battered hex (i.e., reduce resistance points by 1). A wall (embattlement, castle wall, tower) has a battering resistance point value of 4, a gate door of 3. Gate doors may only be battered by the ram; trebuchets and mangonels must attack the gate walls.

Onboard battering

Battering Strength Values and Battering Damage (new DR is made every turn):
Characters : summed-up attack strengths + DR6 (every turn)
Mangonel : 15 + DR10 (Rate of fire: 1 per 4 turns; crew: 3 + engineer)
Trebuchet : 45 + 3DR10 (Rate of fire: 1 per 8 turns; crew: 7 + engineer)
Battering ram : 20 + 2DR10 (every turn)
On a DR of 10, a siege engine receives DR10 points of "wear" damage and must be repaired before further use.

Battering Resistance Values

Targets for battering by hand:
Window, tent : 15
Building door, screen, table : 20
Cart : 30
Keep door, barricade : 40
Mangonel, ballista : 50
Trebuchet : 60
Siege tower, battering ram : 120

Targets for battering with siege engines:
Building wall : 240
Gate door, raised drawbridge, portcullis : 900 (if attacked by ram)
Gate door, raised drawbridge, portcullis : 1200 (if attacked catapult)
Castle wall, embattlement : 1200
Tower or keep : 2400

Panic Table

Add all appropriate modifiers to the morale value of the character. If the resulting morale is 0 or less, the character routs. If morale is above 0, roll a die; if the DR is > the morale value calculated above, the character panics; else, there is no effect.

Morale values:
Knight : 10
Sergeants : 9
Squires, Assassins, Ninjas, Clergy : 8
Halberdiers : 7
Billmen : 6
Spearmen : 5
Missilemen : 4
Engineers : 3
Peasants : 2
Civilians : 1

Morale modifiers:
Cleric fighting in a Temple : +777
Character in fortification : +5
Defending an obstacle or a doorway : +3
One or more enemies routing within 6 hexes : +2
One or more enemies panicking within 6 hexes : +1
Outnumber present opponent 3:1 or more : +1
Night scenario (except Ninja and Assassin units) : -1
Friendly knight killed within 3 hexes this turn : -1
3 or more friendly characters killed within 3 hexes this turn : -1
Outnumbered 3:1 or more by present opponent : -1
One or more friendly characters panicking within 6 hexes : -1
One or more friendly characters routing within 6 hexes : -2
Assigned sergeant captured or killed within 6 hexes this turn : -2
Character is wounded : -2
Character is already in panic : -3


(mnt = mounted, pvt = pivot, fwd = forward, bwd = backward) The map is "The Village" only, so I left the mapboard name out of the coordinates. MP spent are in () after the move, explanations in <>.

Tiptoe through the bodies
It had been one of those evenings, and in the morning bodies are littering the street: one man in L9, 2 men in I10, 2 men and a mule in G14, one man in G11, a destroyed cart (=debris) in F11-G11, and a horse in L9-L10.
Edith (MPA: 4) appears in L6, yawning. She decides to go for a walk and look if there is anyone out there worth mourning about. She moves L7 (1), L8 (1), L9 (2) <horse+man, equiv. to 4 men, double movement cost>, L10 (1), stop. Next turn: K10, J11, I10, H11, stop (4). Next turn: G11 (2), G12 (1), G13 (1), stop. Next turn: G14 (4) <2 x 2>, stop. Nothing particularly interesting, she decides, and moves F14, E13, D13, C12 (4) to her friend Gwendolyn to have some tea and a nice chat.

Fancy footwork (equestrian version)
Sir Richard L9-L8 talks to Leopold K9. He moves fwd L10-L9 (1), pvt bwd L10-K9 (2), fwd M9-L10 (1), bwd L10-L11 (2), pvt bwd L10-M10 (2). Look me the eyes, Leopold! Now you see him, now you...die Francisco S6 is on watch. Ben approaches from Z6: Z7, Y7: Francisco S6 comes into sight <slope hexside U6/V7 is closer to Francisco than to Ben>, X8, W7: 6 MP, and out of sight again. Francisco S6 moves to the R6 door hex (1). Ben W7 moves to V7: no Francisco in sight, though Ben can see hex S6. On to U6, T6: sees Francisco R6, and opts for security in U6 (5). Francisco R6 sneaks back to Q5 (1). Ben U6 to T6: no one in R6!, on to S6, and waits (5). Francisco Q5 to P5, P4, Q3 (6). Ben S6 takes a look around: R6, Q6, P7, Q6, Q5, P5: sees Francisco, but has spent all MP. Francisco's crossbow bolt is the last thing Ben sees in his life.

Sir Roland in T7-T6, viewing Sir Piers V13-V14 (both mnt): May he charge attack? He may, because the T12 tree does not make his way longer than necessary. He must charge in the front arc from V12-V11, however. Though he could reach the rear arc from W13-W12 (and make the attack less dangerous to himself), this would not be the shortest possible route to Sir Piers. Roland attacks with 30+15=45 points, rolls a die, and on 1 to 3 Piers catches it fully, on 4 to 7, too, but counterattacks with 22 points, on 8 or 9 Piers evades the attack, and on a 10 even dismounts Roland.
The same opponents, but in E7-E6 and E13-E14, the same question: "No" for 2 reasons: because no LOS exists, and because Roland would has to spend 6 MP to reach Piers because of the building that stands in the way (without circumventing the building he would need only 5).

Muuuuules- single fiiiiiiile- MARCH!
We have Aylward in N10, a war horse (MPA 8) in O9-P9, and a string composed of a draft horse (MPA 4) in O8-O7 + Mule1 N7 + Mule2 O6. Aylward takes the war horse (1 MP), leads it to O10-O9 (1 MP for the horse, none for Aylward), O10 + P10-O9 (1 MP each), lets it go (no MP), and moves to P10, P9 (2 MP). The next turn he spends attaching the war horse to the draft horse. Next turn he moves to Q9, takes up the war horse, and moves with the string: R10, S9, T10, U10 (6 MP). The notation for the complete string would look like this (the part in parentheses is superfluous because the other animals follow the first one hex by hex):
Aylward R10 + horse Q9-P10 (+ horse O9-O8 + Mule1 O7 + Mule2 N7)
Aylward S9 + horse R10-Q9 (+ horse P10-O9 + Mule1 O8 + Mule2 O7)
Aylward T10 + horse S9-R10 (+ horse Q9-P10 + Mule1 O9 + Mule2 O8)
Aylward U10 + horse T10-S9 (+ horse R10-Q9 + Mule1 P10 + Mule2 O9)
Both Aylward and the draft horse have used up their full MPA. Now Aylward decides to take a look around. He moves from U10 to
Aylward T10 + animals stay
Aylward U9 + animals stay Aylward U8 + horse T9-S9 <pivots>(+ rest stays)
Aylward T8 + horse S8-S9 <pivots again>(+ rest stays)
Aylward U7 + horse T8-S8 (+ horse S9-R10 + Mule1 Q9 + Mule2 P10)
Aylward U8 + horse T9-S8 (+ rest stays), end of turn.
Next turn:
Aylward V9 + horse U9-T9 (+ rest stays) <horse U8-T9 would also be allowed>
Aylward W9 + horse V10-U9 (+ horse T9-S9 + Mule1 R10 + Mule2 Q9)
Aylward X10 + horse W10-U10 (+ horse U9-T9 + Mule1 S9 + Mule2 R10)
Aylward Y10 + horse X10-W10 (+ horse U10-U9 + Mule1 T9 + Mule2 S9)
Aylward Z10 + horse Y9-X10 (+ horse W10-V10 + Mule1 U9 + Mule2 T9), end of turn
(Aylward and the war horse used 6 MP, the draft horse and mules 5 MP.)

Shunting a cart
The carter drives his horse Liz and cart U10-V11+V12-V13, T10-U10+V11-V12, S9-T10+U10-V11, R9-S9+T10-U10, Q8-R9+S9-T10, P9-Q8+R9-S9, O9-P9+Q8-R9, N9-O9+P9-Q8, M9-N9+O9-P9 (this took 8 MP = 2 turns), and slowly detaches the horse (one turn to disembark, one to detach Liz). Odo and Crispin watch him. "We wanted you to drive the cart to Q7-P8 to load it!" "Never mind, you are strong enough to move it yourself! And put it in P8-Q7, or I cannot attach Liz to it again. When shall I come back to fetch it?" "Let's see... half an hour to load it..." And how many to move it?
This would work: O9-P9 + 2 men in (O8, Q8): fwd N10-O9 + (N9, P9) = 1 MP, 1st turn. Bwd O9-O8 + (N9, O7) = 2 MP, 2nd turn. Now Crispin N9 changes his position and goes to P10, Odo O7 to N8. Again, bwd to P8-O8 + (O9, P7) = 2 MP, 4th turn. Change again: Odo P7 to O7, Crispin O9 to N9. Last shove: bwd to P8-Q7 + (O8, P7) = 2 MP, 6th turn. " 6 turns pushing the cart... carter, take a good rest in the pub, we will call you!" (Is there a quicker way to do it?)

Oh carry me back...
It had definitely not been Sir Peter's day. He lies dead in W12, and Tybalt V11 and Geoffrey W10 have come to take him to the chapel. A cart with a draft horse stands in R9-S9 + T9-U8. Tybalt moves V12, V13, W13; Geoffrey moves to W11. Next turn, they move together W10-W11-W12, W9-W10-W11. Next turn, pivot clockwise to X10-W10-V11 (2, because Geoffrey spent 2 MP in the slope hex). Next turn, move W9-V10-U10, V9-U9-T10. Next turn, they load what is left of Sir Peter into cart hex U8, with Tybalt moving into U9. Next turn, Geoffrey moves to U9 and enters cart hex T9. Tybalt moves T10, S10, R10, Q9 (4), and takes up the horse (1) <he may not begin to move the cart because Geoffrey embarked this turn>. Next turn, the assembly moves away to convey the deceased to his last resting place.

Freddie goes berserk!
Let's assume Frederick T14 is allowed to go berserk by SSR (I always suspected him, anyway). His friend Sir Piers U10 is fighting with Sir Roland V10 and Crispin W9.
At the start of his movement phase, Frederick rolls 8 and goes into a rage. He aims for Crispin who is the only enemy in LOS: move U13- hold it! Sir Roland comes into sight, and is nearer. Continuing to use the route using the least MP, he moves V13, V12, V11 and attacks Roland: let us assume n/e. Next turn Crispin moves to W10. Roland and Crispin wound Frederick, but it is his first wound in this fit of rage: n/e! Now Frederick rolls again: 7, +3 DRM <in rage>=10, rage continues. No effects in this and the next fights. Next turn Frederick rolls an original 10 and really turns mad: random DR are Roland 4, Piers 2, Crispin 8: Frederick attacks his friend Sir Piers! The player decides to let Piers attack Frederick first (he still may decide on the sequence of movement and combat, and he would have been allowed to move Piers away in the movement phase to protect him from the attack), rolls low, and wounds Frederick. This time he has to take the wound because it is the second in this fit of rage (in his next fit, he again would ignore the first wound). Frederick in turn gets a n/e against Piers. Next turn Frederick rolls 3, +3 DRM =6, the fit ends, and so does this nightmare.

We're from the Tax Office! Open that door!
Ben H12, Aylward J12 and Crispin L12 are expecting trouble. Sir Roland G5 and Frederick E6 have just come into sight.
Ben shuts the door I11, moves I12, J13, and shuts the window J13/J14 (4). Aylward bolts the I11 door (all). Crispin moves K11, J12, I11(inside) (3). Roland G5 moves to G9 (4), and Frederick E6 to F7, G7, G8, G9, G10, G11 (6). Ben bolts the window J13/J14 (all), and Crispin begins to reinforce the door. A DR6 of 2 gives a new battering resistance of 22.
Sir Roland moves H10, I10, I11 and roars "We came to collect the taxes! Open, in the name of the King!". Frederick moves G12, G13, H14, I13, J14.
Ben moves to I12, and Crispin continues to strengthen the door: DR6 =4, new strength 26. Aylward yells "Never, you robbers!"
Sir Roland batters: attack strength =15 +1 <DR6>=16, leaves a battering resistance of 10. Frederick waits.
Crispin reinforces, helped by Aylward and Ben: DR6 =6 +1 DRM =7, resistance is up to 17 again.
Sir Roland batters weakly again: 15 +1 <DR6>=16, still no visible effect.
Frederick does better, and with 12 +4 <DR6>=16 the window collapses.
Aylward shoots and is lucky: in spite of medium cover, he kills Frederick, and after that moves J13, J14, I13 (4). Crispin smells his chance and unbolts the door, Ben moves J13, J14 (5).
Sir Roland loses courage and moves H11, G11, F12, F13 (4). Aylward wounds him with his first arrow, and moves H14, G13, F14. Ben moves I13, H14, G13, and Crispin opens what is left of the door and moves H11, G11, F12 (4). Together they attack the encircled Sir Roland, and kill him. May all tax collectors end like him!

Plagiariser's Notes

The rules of the original "Cry Havoc!" series evolved and developed over some years, covering additional equipment, situations etc., and modifying rules. The Combat Tables expanded by and by, and the Missile Fire Tables were completely changed from "Siege" on.
The rules here were compiled by scanning the original rules, resolving conflicts, and introducing some of my pet rules exceptions. A main impact lies on clarifications, and on deciding which rules were the better ones in cases of conflict. I always tried to keep playability as high as it was originally. I once said that this was not meant to be a game system: well, it always was, even by the original rules, only it was a game system described in overlapping and not always compatible chapters.
The rules are mostly the original rules steamrolled broad to cover as many situations as possible without the need to discuss rules via e-mail. Some rules were "randomised" to allow one side of a PBEM game to handle as much of a PT as possible without checking with the opponent, and some were made less predictable (why should a Berserk always have rage fits of exactly three turns, for example?)
The time/distance scale I used throughout was 1 hex = 1,5 meters, one game turn 10 seconds.

Now to the details: Obvious necessities were some PBEM regulations and the map coordinate system. I used the coordinates from "Viking Raiders" for all mapboards ("Outremer" in one scenario used a slightly different system). The definitions section of the rules is for convenience only. At some points the original rules remain fuzzy. What is a "day"? In "Siege", the term is explained only in a scenario context, and I tried to come up with a second definition.
Sequence of play is unchanged, only completed. The LOS chapter is greatly expanded, because terms like "any feasible angle" do not help much when discussing the untimely demise of one's pet knight. Also, I tried to consolidate elevation effects (the example in "Siege", 1.333, is no longer valid). I think the rules are usable without really introducing multi-level terrain; everything comes down to a simple "higher" or "lower" question. Horse movement and mounting/dismounting has been expressed in new terms. Some special movement cases are included (falling, etc.), as was the "helping" idea from "Viking Raiders". Movement hindrance has been extended to live characters. I was very proud to have invented the "pinning rule", which I originally called "challenging a passing character". Imagine my indignation when I found that this rule, in fact, was already included in "Viking Raiders" under the name of "challenge"! I changed the name of this rule, but only to avoid confusion with the chivalrous single combat challenge rule from "Samurai Blades". Leading animals and moving carts was clarified (I hope).

The treatment of missile attacks required some decisions. Missile fire tables vary quite a lot between the original games. The odd-calculating system was used in "Cry Havoc!" and "Dark Blades", and the "generalised" tables in all other games. In "Outremer", the authors obviously decided that they were too general, and split tables between armoured and unarmoured characters. But in addition, weapon power and ranges changed considerably between the games. I decided to use the "Viking Raiders" and "Outremer" missile fire tables on the assumption that they were the most advanced. They take some edge off the missilemen, too. If you consider that one missile fire really simulates one single arrow, the original hit rates were more Robin-Hood-like than realistic. (An attempt to improve the original odd-calculating fire tables failed, though I liked them better than the generalised tables.)
Cover of exterior building corners is somewhat elaborated (with a related movement rule change), and for 2-hex-units the cover now depends on the actual hex fired at.

Combat stayed the same that it was, but I replaced the column shift for multiple combat by the new "encirclement" modifier, and included the fine-tuned "Dark Blades" tables in the form of the "combat between infantry and mounted character" modifiers. The charge rule ("Outremer") was adapted for PBEM use, and I really like its current form.
Damage results were described in more detail, and sometimes connected to a random decision to ease PBEM game flow. Retreat is handled a bit more detailed, and the penalty for incomplete retreat has been made less severe. The advance after combat has been in the game from "Siege" on, but one thing is really new: melee. This locks characters in combat, in essence making it a bit more difficult for them to flip into and out of combat at their own decision. Ten seconds is not much, and to move, shoot and have combat in this time seems to demand an awful lot from the warriors. Read this rule carefully, it imposes some severe restrictions.
Task is a new term that describes old things, namely the restriction to do more than one thing in a player turn. Some special actions have been described that will happen seldom in a game, but might be useful. For battering, though, a second "onboard" alternative is described, and it allows battering a few more things than before, too. "Moving bodies" and "Glorious suicide" have that morbid touch you would rightly connect with the Japanese way of dying; they are from "Samurai Blades".
Terrain descriptions were collated and sometimes specified more precisely. Especially the old "battlement" terrain was defined differently than before, even if this causes few (if any) changes of its use.
I decided that certain "terrain" types are in fact hexside features, and described them as such. The portcullis is, I believe, my own invention (the portcullis rule, I mean, I am not that old). The invention of "Table" terrain was spawned by romantic ideas about medieval debauchery.
Some new terrain is found on the additional mapboards, and I had to find rules for it, too. Just imagine stacking your opponents 3 deep in the dungeon! (By the way: the dungeon-or-platform question is not decided easily: the stairway depiction would, by medieval building standards, indicate an elevation on one map and a depression on the other, for stairs were usually built "elevating clockwise" so the attacker from below could not easily cover his left side with the shield.) Water rules differed much in the original games; I tried to consolidate them, and will keep my feet dry if possible in the future. Water is a nasty environment in "Cry Havoc!".

Very near the original are the rules for animals and carts, though I could not refrain from introducing man's most faithful nuisance, the dog. In fact historical accounts indicate that dogs were a very common thing both inside and outside the castles and villages, and were put to use to replace watchmen or even for fight. I felt they were needed to round off the scenery. (If you like real nasty dogs, play "Dark Blades".)

The special equipment section started mainly as a data collection until I began reading a bit and found out the reason why battering is handled so abstractly in the original rules: A medieval siege was a wonderful thing to behold indeed, and could last many a month.
Siege catapults had rates of fire that ranged from 4 to 12 shots per hour and cast everything from 2-kg-stones to 250-kg-rocks (not to mention other, more odious, or even odorous, items) at a range of up to 400 m, needing four to fifteen men for operation. This obviously is quite outside the scale of "Cry Havoc!", and the rules compromise between skirmishing action and a realistic time scale. The "Siege" Scenario Booklet contains some excellent examples how interesting scenarios can be created in the "Cry Havoc!" scale using siege equipment.
A fact that is not mentioned there is that siege engines were as much in use on the defending as on the attacking side. Rules do not forbid this, and you might use this option. However, to avoid complicated "catapult duel" rules I decided that siege engines were not allowed as targets for catapult fire.
To give you an impression of the scale of a typical siege: most castles only had a wartime crew of 20 to 50 soldiers (indeed, this was already regarded a "medium size" castle), and only really large castles held up to 100 soldiers, and very few civilians, if any. Another example of a major siege gives 140 defending soldiers and a besieging force of 7000 (including 700 workmen). The fact that even with this meagre garrison castles were seldom attacked in open battle gives an impression of the relative strengths of attackers and defenders. Keep this in mind when creating own scenarios. If you are not convinced, just try to storm a manned rampart!. (By the way, this is where the dogs came into the game: the small garrison force had to rely on them as sentries to alert the soldiers when something unusual turned up.)
I kept the barrels of oil in the arsenal, though few defenders will have had stores of oil sufficient to use it in large scale (in fact, they probably represent a petroleum-based mixture called "Greek Fire"). To create a balance I introduced "cauldrons of boiling water" which should have been easier to prepare, and which gives defenders the chance to use the oil against realistic targets like ram or siege tower. A yes, the siege tower: if its height seems somewhat flexible this only portrays that siege towers were built on demand, and in the height needed (which usually meant that they were higher than the embattlements).
I decided to describe two different battering methods. One is abstract (I called it "offboard", and it is taken from the "Siege" rules). This method is suited well to more or less describe the course of a whole siege. The other is rather direct (I called it "onboard"), and may serve to illustrate the action on one or a few consecutive days of a siege.
To describe a real siege still is entirely outside the scope of "Cry Havoc!", I believe. A siege was a major enterprise which was usually solved as much by political as by military means. It could take any form from a series of skirmishes to a year-long blockade and was often mainly a mutual demonstration of power to provide a basis for negotiation. Supply problems and attempts to call in relief forces were important factors of the battle. The pure mechanical sapping and mining work was difficult to counter, went on with mathematical precision if undisturbed, but was often not even tried because of the huge logistic and manpower problems. When it was done, it often served mainly to gain an advantage in negotiations. Siege technique change little from the times of the Greek and Roman Empires until the late 15th century when cannon manufacture was perfected (although cannons had been in use from the 14th century on).
(For those of you who like to read: The Palladium RPG book "The Compendium of Weapons, Armour & Castles" (Detroit 1989, by Matthew Balent) contains information without end, and has the right amount of Hollywood in it, too.) The night rules are mainly from "Samurai Blades". Optional rules, again, are mainly a collection, with some details added by me. For campaign rules, for the time being you must refer to "Outremer" and the additional scenario booklets. Rules there contain lots of ideas that will make a campaign real fun to play. The same goes for DYO scenarios.

Have Fun !

Lutz Pietschker alias Noitaler (CIS 100442,3430)

Web site:

Appendix: Customer Information

"Cry Havoc!" and its sequels "Siege", "Samurai Blades", "Outremer", "Viking Raiders" and "Dark Blades" have been published from the mid-eighties on by

Standard Games and Publications, Ltd. Arlon House, Station Road, King's Langley, Herts. WD4 8LF, UK Phone: 01923-26 83 28 or 01923-26 97 37 Fax : 01923-26 07 40

Their representative for the U.S. of A. is

Excalibre Games 1177 Ottawa Street, Windsor, Ontario Canada N8X 2E4 Phone: 519 253 5916 (ask for Mr. Robert Mosimann)

Games and game parts are still available. Prices are (info as of March, 1995, all in Pounds Sterling, all not binding/ informational only) 10.95 to 12.65 for the complete games, mapboards 1.65 per sheet, counter sheets 2.70 ("Outremer" counters 5.39 / 2 sheets). Direct mail orders add 20% (UK), 35% (overseas) resp. 55% (EEC world wide).

Eh? --- No, I am not a representative of Standard Games, but gamers have have asked me to provide this info, and I also think it fair towards Standard Games to give it.