VOLUME #3: U.S. NAVY PLAN ORANGE



                       Alan R. Arvold


   The following errata and clarifications were based on a series

of questions put to, and answered by, Avalanche Press in a number

of phone calls. Also consulted were the numerous entries and

their responses listed in the GREAT WAR AT SEA section on

Consimworld. However, all errata and clarifications in this

article should be considered to be unofficial.





   There have been three different Series Rules Books in the game

series. The first version came in the first three games of the


PLAN ORANGE). The second version came in the fourth and fifth

games of the series (1904-1905: THE RUSSO-JAPANESE NAVAL WAR and

U.S. NAVY PLAN BLACK) and was available as replacements for the

rule books in the first three games. These versions are now

obsolete. The third version came in the sixth and seventh games

of the series (1898: THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR and U.S. NAVY PLAN

RED) and the second edition of the first game. This is the

current version of the Standard Rules for the game series.


8.5 Dead in the Water

8.51 Speed Loss (Add): If a ship which suffers a hit whose

printed damage result includes losing one movement, and from the

same hit has more than half of the number of hull boxes crossed

off, than that ship suffers the loss of two movement, not one. A

ship may not lose more than one movement due to having more than

half of its hull boxes crossed off in a game, no matter how many

additional hull boxes are crossed off later on. Additional

printed movement losses from damage results still apply though.

(This rule represents the reduction of a ship's speed due to the

gradual flooding in the damaged hull spaces. The printed movement

losses in the various damage tables represent engine room hits.)


8.6 Referred Pain

(Add): 8.63 If primary hits on primary and secondary armament

with light or no armor cause excess damage, the excess damage can

be taken as a hull hit if the original primary hit takes out the

last armament box of the required type. However, the excess

damage is ignored if the hull has heavy armor.


9.0 Multiple-Ship Counters

9.3 Combat (Clarification): A player can not place all hits on

one ship in the counter if there are more hits than the one ship

can possibly absorb. In addition, once a ship has taken enough

hull hits to sink, it is no longer eligible to receive any more






   In the first sets of the game that was released in 1998, there

were copies of the Advanced Tactical Rules for the GREAT WAR AT

SEA system in the game box. These were an experimental set of

rules which were never official and were subsequently left out

when the second edition of the Standard Series Rules started to

be included in the game instead of the first edition. These rules

are still considered experimental for those players who want to

try them out, but will never be part of the standard rules.


   There was also a chart with various tables for use in the

game. Several of these tables are no longer valid due to changes

in the later editions of the Standard Series Rules. These are the

Spotting Table, the Air Search Table, the Weather Effects Table,

the Critical Damage Table, the NPO Gunnery Die Roll Table, and

the Initiative Table. Ignore all tables pertaining to the GREAT

WAR AT SEA VOLUME #2 game. The Aircraft vs Ship Combat Table,

Torpedo Damage Table, and the Gunnery Damage Table can be used

but note the minor changes in the third edition of the Standard

Series Rules for them. The Weather Track should still be used as

there is no weather track printed on the operational map sheet as

in other games of the series. (For those games without this

chart, merely photocopy the Weather Track off of one of the

operational map sheets from another game in the series.)





Japanese Kongo Class Battlecruisers (Clarification): Many people

wonder why the Kongo class of battlecruisers have an attack

factor of 9 in U.S. NAVY PLAN ORANGE while having an attack

factor of only 8 in GREAT WAR AT SEA: THE NORTH & BALTIC SEAS.

While the official explanation has been improvements in fire

control, this can not be true as all other major navies made

improvements to their fire control systems and kept pace. No, the

answer here is in the type of armor-piercing shell the Japanese

were beginning to use in 1930. These shells when striking the

water would not plunge deep in the water and explode. Instead

they would travel just under the surface for about a 100 meters

or so in their general line of trajectory before exploding. The

theory behind these special shells was that if they landed just

short of, but in line of, the target ship, they would travel

underwater and hit the target ship's hull much like a torpedo.

This had the potential of causing more damage to the target ship

than if the shells hit it normally. The first type of these

special shells was for the 14" gun. However the Japanese were

just beginning production of them in 1930 and so supplies were

limited. They initially went to the Kongo class battlecruisers as

they had the fewest primary guns of all of their capital ships,

thus increasing their effectiveness.

(Historically these shells, which were later made in 6", 8", and

16" versions as well, seemed to work fine when fired at

stationary target ships. However in combat their performance was

rather poor.)

Japanese Battlecruiser Armor (Clarification): Many people wonder

why the Japanese battlecruisers have heavy armor and deck armor

in this game while in earlier games they have light armor.

Assuming that the Washington treaty did not come about, the

Japanese would have uparmored their ships during the 1920s, most

especially their battlecruisers, taking into account the lessons

learned from naval combat in the First World War.

Japanese Furutaka Class Light Cruisers (Clarification): Many

people wonder why the cruisers Furutaka and Kako are designated

light cruisers in the game, yet during the Second World War they

were designated as heavy cruisers. The Furutaka and Kako were the

first of a new type of light cruiser in the Japanese Navy which

was more powerfully armed than previous ones. Mounting 8" guns,

these ships were suppose to take the place of the old armored

cruisers of the previous decades. (Other navies in the world were

designing and building this same type of new cruiser during this

time as well.) However the London Treaty of 1930 redesignated all

cruisers in the world as either being light or heavy cruisers.

This did away with all the other old designations such as

armored, protected, and scout cruisers which had been causing a

lot of confusion as to cruiser types and functions. Cruisers with

8" guns were redesignated as heavy cruisers. In this game it is

presumed that the London Treaty never occured and that these

ships retained their light cruiser designations.

Many players wonder why the Japanese are still using coal in 1930

for fuel in their large capital ships while the Americans are

using oil in theirs. The Japanese got into the conversion from

coal to oil fueled ships rather late due to their lack of the

sufficent oil reserves necessary to maintain an oil fueled navy

in full operational status. (They had to import all of their

oil.) When they did start converting over to oil, they first

concentrated on their lighter ships (cruisers and destroyers) in

order to increase their range and keep up with the large capital

ships for longer distances before refueling. By the mid 1930's

the Japanese had accumulated sufficent enough oil reserves to

make the fuel conversion of their large capital ships more

practical, which they did in a massive rebuilding program during

that time.

The Japanese minelayer Itsukushima (ML02) counter should have a

tertiary gunnery value of 2, not 1. This applies to both the

counter in the game and the counter from the variant light ship

counter sheet (available from Grognard). The Hit Record Chart is

correct though.

The American battlecruiser Constellation is misnumbered, both on

the counter, and on the Hit Record Sheets as well as in several

of the scenarios in the book. Its number should be CC02, not


The American armored cruiser Rochester is the same ship as the

armored cruiser New York in the game 1898. Her name was changed

in 1911 to the Saratoga to free up her original name for the new

battleship being built at the time. In 1917 her name was changed

again to the Rochester to free up her second name for one of the

planned ships of the Lexington Class of battlecruisers.

The variant light ship counters of the American gunboats Ashville

and Tulsa are misnumbered. They should be GB21 and GB22

respectively, not GB20 and GB21.

A lot of people wonder why the American battleship Utah has deck

armor while her sister ship, the Florida, does not. The Utah went

through a modernization upgrade in the late 1920s where she got

increased deck armor. The Florida did not because she was slated

to be decommissioned and scrapped about the time frame of the

game. Of course this hypothetical war with Japan delays her

decommissioning and she goes to war as is.





   There were two editions of the Scenario Book. The first

edition came in the early sets of the game and is no longer

valid. The first edition Scenario Book did contain a Campaign

Game which was left out of the second edition. This Campaign Game

can still be used.


Special Rules


   There are several special rules listed here which later appear

in the games U.S. NAVY PLAN BLACK and U.S. NAVY PLAN RED. These

are placed here to update U.S. NAVY PLAN ORANGE rules to their

standard. There are some differences though which account for the

advances in technology and techniques in the years between PLAN



Sequence of Play (Addition): At the end of the Sequence of Play

List, after the Tactical Phase, add the following bullet:

Aircraft Return Phase


Victory Points: Each destroyed airship is worth six victory

points, not five. (Post World War One airships were more capable

than those made during the war.)


Combat Round (Addition): A "round of combat" (used to describe

the length of some battle scenarios) is one completion of the

tactical sequence (all 20 steps).


Crippled Ships (Addition): During tactical combat, a player may

separate an individual ship counter from a group once the ship

counter has lost at least half of its largest type of guns or

half of its hull boxes, or if it has suffered a reduction in



Gunnery (Clarification): The reason that all guns hit on a die

roll of 5 or 6 is two fold. First, this reflects the advancement

of fire control procedures and equipment that occured in the

1920's incorperating the lessons learned from the First World

War. Second, both sides were carrying spotter planes on their

capital ships which they used to better observe the fall of their

rounds around their targets, substantially improving the

adjustment of their fires upon the same.


Release (Addition): In some scenarios, ships are not allowed to

leave port until some specified event has taken place. the owning

player may begin writing orders for these ships when they are

released; they may only be assigned an intercept mission, and

thus may not leave until two turns after they are released (in

addition to any delay specified by the scenario instructions).


American Methods (Addition): Large American warships employed

more labor-saving devices than those of the other navies of the

world (which also included more extensive on-board machine

shops). This plus the American practice of heating living spaces

(in colder climates) required power even when in port; therefore,

American BBs and CCs expend fuel even when in port (an exception

to 12.12), but not while refueling. However, the greater

efficiencies gained plus cross-training and an emphasis on

individual initiative had other benefits. Subtract one from the

die roll when an American BB or CC attempts emergency repairs



19.0 Air Operations

19.17 (Change): The first bullet should read as follows:

If an airbase is within range, they may land there. They may land

on another carrier later in the game if it is within range and

capacity is available.

19.3 Takeoff and Landing

(Clarification): Most planes did not fly night missions during

this time, though airships and seaplanes did. The take-off and

landing modifiers at night are for seaplanes. The landing

modifier is also for those planes in an Air Strike which take off

on the last day turn and return on the following night turn.

19.7 Air Search

(Add) 19.73 The searching player may also attempt to locate enemy

raiding fleets which are not on the operational map. The

searching player designates the aircraft performing the search

and rolls the die. The raiding player consults the Air Search

Table and places his raiding fleet on the map if the search is

successful, and reports the number of capital and light ships in

the fleet and whether any aircraft carriers are present.

(Add): 19.74 If more than one fleet occupies the same search

zone, search attempts are resolved for each fleet.

(Add): 19.75 If an enemy fleet is spotted by air search this

turn, add two to the die roll for friendly fleets in the same sea

zone attempting to make contact.

(Add): 19.76 The Japanese seaplane counters (E2N) may either

participate in the regular day search (using the rules above) or

may conduct their own independent searches during day or night

turns using the rules in section 14.0. If using these rules, the

E2N may be placed on a sea zone within eight hexes of its point

of launch. A sea plane counter may be placed in a sea zone

containing a fleet counter only if that fleet counter was spotted

in the previous daylight turn or had a seaplane counter in its

hex during the previous night turn. A seaplane counter may shadow

a fleet counter in the same manner as an airship (21.53)

providing it does not go beyond its range from its point of

launch. If its point of launch is a ship, that ship may move

while the seaplane counter is in the air and the point of launch

for recon and recovery purposes may change. However the ship may

not move in the turns in which it launches or recovers seaplanes.

(The Japanese used seaplanes to supplement their regular day

search or strike aircraft or to shadow spotted enemy fleets at

night when their day search aircraft were landed.)

19.8 Air Strike

19.81 (Add): If the target fleet has moved beyond the range of

the strike aircraft, they return to base without striking the

fleet. An air strike may not hit a fleet during a night turn; if

the next turn is a night turn the strike aircraft return to base

without striking the fleet. Seaplanes, which may fly at night,

may not perform air strikes at night although they may search in

accordance with Rule 14.0.

19.82 (Add): Add one to the die roll if the current weather

condition is Fog.


20.0 Air Combat

20.1 Air-to Air Combat (Clarification): Only those aircraft with

circled Air-to-Air factors (fighters) may initiate combat.

Aircraft of the attack force may return fire against CAP aircraft

in this game.

(Strike and bomber aircraft had started carrying defensive

armament by this time period. Airships had carried defensive

armament for some time by now.)

20.4 Torpedo and Bomb Damage (Add): Bomb hits do penetrate hull

armor which is immune to plunging fire. (This simulates dive

bombing, a bombing technique which was in its infancy at this

time. Also airships and bombers were flying high enough that the

bombs that they dropped had gathered enough speed to penetrate

deck armor by the time they had hit the target ship.) A bomb hit

on ships with light or no armor may cause excess damage (8.3).


21.0 Airships

21.5 Airship Missions

(Add) 21.53 If an airship spots an enemy fleet, it may shadow the

fleet for as long as the owning player desires and as long as the

airship's endurance allows. Place the airship counter on the

enemy fleet counter; it moves whenever the fleet counter moves (a

raiding fleet counter shadowed by an airship may not be removed

from the map).

21.6 Airship Endurance (Add): An airship which does not return to

base is destroyed (garnering the enemy player six victory



22.0 Submarine Flotillas

22.3 Submarine Reconnaissance

(Add) 22.33 No more than two submarines may attack the same ship

in the same turn.

(Add) 22.34 Each submarine may attack three times in the course

of the game unless it leaves the operational map (see below). A

submarine may only attack once per game turn.

(The submarines built in the 1920's carried a larger supply of

torpedoes than those built during the First World War or even

those built shortly thereafter.)

22.4 Submarine Movement

(Add): All of its submarines have a full allotment of torpedoes

upon their return to the map and may make three more attacks.




Battle Scenario 2

(Correction): The date of the battle is 1 September 1930, not 5

August 1930.

Operational Scenario 1

(Clarification): The Special Rule for Merchant Shipping is here

because there is no shipping routes printed on the operational

mapsheet in the game. Still all the rules from Section 10.0 in

the Standard Rules do apply as if there was a shipping route

printed on the hexrow indicated in the special rule.

Operational Scenario 2

(Correction): The Japanese carrier Hosho and its accompanying

aircraft counter (1 x A2N) are listed twice in the Japanese order

of battle, once in the force at Cavite and once in the force at

Sasebo. Delete the listing from the force at Sasebo.




On the Aircraft vs. Ships Table on the last page of the book,

make the following correction:

Die Roll Modifiers

+2 if the target is dead in the water.





American Capital Ships

The battlecruisers Constellation and United States each should

have a boxed torpedo value of 2, not 1.

The light cruisers are misnumbered. They should be Omaha (CL04),

Cincinnati (CL06), Raleigh (CL07), Detroit (CL08), Richmond

(CL09), Marblehead (CL12), and Memphis (CL13). The counters are

correctly numbered though.


American Light Ships

The destroyer counter Clemson-16 should be listed as DD-22. There

is no Clemson-17 counter in the game.