Empire of the Sun

Collected Q & A (13661 1.4) back to (3400 pre-v1.2) - version 7.15

Compiled by Jonathan Gingerich.
Special thanks to David Casper for previous assistance.


This document is an attempt to compile substantial questions raised on John Kranz's Consimworld Web site about GMT's game Empire of the Sun, designed by Mark Herman and developed by Stephen Newberg, not addressed by the official FAQ and errata, and to provide a complete answer. I do winnow out questions I believe to be plainly and consistently answered within the rules, in a place you would expect to find it. And I've tried to expand on some of the more complicated aspects of the game. The questions and answers are rendered as I understand them. In particular, the degree of certainly in the answer is an attempt to convey whether the answer comes from the designer/developer or a plain reading of the rules, or from a consensus of players, or my own guesses. I make no apologies for the latter, as an arbitrary answer is often useful if the correct one is unknown. It is a designer's privilege to change their mind, so no answer should be assumed "official" until it is published by GMT. Any errors in compilation or interpretation are my own. Comments, suggestions, corrections, or disagreements are welcome. Use at your own risk.

What this document is not, is in any sense official or endorsed by GMT. They request that you do not discuss it on their folders. If you wish to, please discuss it with me directly or in my blog, as I have been denied access to the Empire of the Sun folder.



Question: What rules are in effect?
Answer: Version 1.4 and the Official Corrections and Clarifications (currently at 1.3) and Official Frequently Asked Questions, which are available at GMT's company web site, although this is not widely known. This list paraphrases Q&A from those documents, as a convenience.


Question: Are resource hexes "named" locations?
Answer: Yes, at least for Special Reaction, and surely for Retreats.


Question: If an activated unit simultaneously moves into an enemy ZoI, and cuts supply removing the ZoI, does the +2 bonus still apply?
Answer: Yes.

Question: What if an Offensives unit is activated within an opposing ZoI, but does not move?
Answer: No DRM, the enemy is not alerted to unusual activity.

5.31 C

Question: May reinforcements brought in by an EC be activated as part of that EC Offensive?
Answer: There does not seem to be any prohibition on entry before activation. Then again, there doesn't seem to be any prohibition on entry after PBM, if you find that to be useful...

5.32, 6.27

Question: When exactly does Special Reaction occur?
Answer: Special Reaction determines additional battle hexes immediately after Offensives movement. Then the overall intelligence condition is determined. If the condition remains Surprise, the Reactive player can react to Special Reaction battle hexes, but will suffer the surprise attack penalty in any air-naval combat.

Question: May the Reactive player react to other battle hexes if the intelligence condition is Surprise?
Answer: No, only to Special Reaction battles.

Question: Having successfully rolled for special reaction, is the Reactive player required to participate in battle?
Answer: No.

Question: May an Offensives player play a Reaction card as an OP?
Answer: Yes, but only the Reaction player can play it as an event.

5.32 C

Question: Does a Reaction Counteroffensive allow the Reactive player to declare battles?
Answer: No, it changes the intelligence condition and allows activations against the Logistics value, but movement restrictions still apply.

5.32 D

Question: Can you play a Weather card after the Intelligence Roll?
Answer: No, it must be played before.

Question: Can you cancel ISR with an EC offensive, even if the offensive is cancelled by a Weather card?
Answer: No.

Question: What about other effects?
Answer: All effects are canceled.

Question: Can you play an EC and decline to activate for an offensive in order to avoid cancellation by a Weather card?
Answer: Unclear. Depends whether Offensives that activate units is prescriptive or descriptive.


Question: May a player look at the card drawn?
Answer: There is nothing in the rules to preclude this. But in an e-mail game, it presents a trust problem, and so should be decided beforehand.

Question: Is the card draw an "additional effect"?
Answer: No, it is a bonus, and always possible if the card has been played as an EC or Reaction. ISR cards may be played for no effect. But it is unclear if one may play more than one intelligence effect card or play attack cards (submarines and kamikazes) without targets, just for the card draw.

Question: What happens if you run out of cards?
Answer: Immediately reshuffle the discards as detailed in 5.37.


Question: Must all units activate before any move?
Answer: Yes, see the Offensives sequence in 6.2.


Question: May you declare a battle hex where air units attack a ground unit?
Answer: Yes, or naval may shore bombard ground units in a coastal hex or one hex island.

6.25 E

See 5.22.


Question: Do the "All restrictions that govern Offensive activation apply to Reaction activation,..." include restrictions on a card played as an EC offensive?
Answer: No, those are "Offensives" only restrictions. See the description of the cards in 5.3.

Question: Must reacting unit enter the battle hex?
Answer: No, they "reach" the battle by getting into range they can participate in it. In particular, air units may not even enter the battle hex.

Question: May units react out of a battle hex out of range, so long as they participate in combat?
Answer: No, they must remain in range and therefore must be air units, carriers, or naval units escorting carriers. This question was prompted by an unlikely interpretation mistaken endorsed at one time.

Question: When air units react out of or toward a battle hex, is it possible for them to enter a hex with a friendly air field and enemy naval units. It is also possible for naval units reacting out of a battle hex to enter a sea hex with enemy naval units, or an enemy occupied coastal hex. Is this allowed?
Answer: Yes, this is called "co-location" - battles are resolved and the naval units will PBM to friendly ports. Meanwhile they ignore each other.

Question: Suppose a carrier accompanies a ground unit AA'ing an unoccupied hex. The carrier is assigned to participate in a nearby battle. However, the hex is subject to Special Reaction, and the Reactive player moves units to oppose the amphibious assault. Now the carrier is in one battle hex, but participating in another. What happens?
Answer: The carrier must fight in the special reaction battle. It is not co-located, because the hex it is in is a battle hex and it must participate in that battle.

Question: Suppose the carrier is attacking an air/naval unit which the Reaction player wishes to attack the SR hex?
Answer: The SR hex does not become a battle hex until the itelligence roll succeeds and an activated unit moves into the battle. If another unit moved into the battle in the SR hex, then the carrier would have to participate there, and any Reactive air/naval unit previously pinned by the carrier would be free to move. But if not, then it appears the SR hex does not become a battle hex, and the air/naval unit must battle the carrier in the original battle hex.


Question: Can a ground unit react through a battle hex (attacked by air/naval) on the way to another battle hex?
Answer: Yes.


Question: Can you SR if a hex is entered by enemy ground units using ground movement, along with air, naval, or AA'ed ground units?
Answer: No. Entry by normal ground movement causes the hex to change control and so you cannot SR. This was the way the rule was originally written, but it proved too subtle, so the line about ground movement was added to clarify things. Note that paratroopers can also change hex control.

Question: Can you SR into a resource hex?
Answer: Yes.

Question: Does the +2 DRM for moving within an enemy ZoI count for the SR roll?
Answer: Yes, it is an intelligence roll.

Question: What if the Reactive air unit is an LRB - it doesn't neutralize enemy ZoI's which might then put it out of supply and therefore eliminate the LRB's ZoI - does this prevent Special Reaction?
Answer: Yes - but note that the +2 intelligence roll DRM would still apply, as this would occur as the Offensives air unit is still establishing itself.

6.29 B

Question: If a Future Offensive allows a card draw, may it be played after a player runs out of cards in his hand, on the grounds that it will not be the last card played?
Answer: No.


Question: May naval units move through enemy occupied hexes?
Answer: Yes.

Question: May naval units end their movement in a non-port hex within range of a battle hex, but not participate?
Answer: No, but note that if they are in range of an AA'ed hex they qualify by another clause.

Question: Must the AA'ed hex be subject to SR?
Answer: No. Note that sometimes it is necessary to escort an AA with a carrier to suppress enemy ZoI's and the carrier will need a place to end its move, hence the rule.

Question: May naval units "drop off" from moving stacks?
Answer: No.

Question: During IAI, The Mogami is one of the few units which can attack Tjilatjap. Can it transport the 2SN to an unopposed AA at Miri on the way to Tjilatjap?
Answer: No, because it would require the carrier to "drop off".


Question: Can a naval unit emergency move to any port within 10 hexes as the crow flies?
Answer: Yes - per the example in the rules - Leyte to Soerabaja is 11 hexes by sea and 10 as the crow flies.


Question: May a moving carrier neutralize enemy ZoI's (as it does during AA) when stacked with naval units using Strategic Naval Movement, if the carrier itself does not Strat. Move?
Answer: No, because it would require the carrier to "drop off".


Question: May an air unit with parenthesized extended range participate in battle at extended range as long as it does not move using extended range (see 1.3 and 5.11)?
Answer: No, see implications of 8.2.

Question: An air unit can land in a friendly airfield under attack from enemy AA, so long as it is not a battle hex, correct?
Answer: Incorrect. Any enemy ground unit occupation renders the airfield unusable.

Question: An air unit using ()-extended range may not participate in battle. Does it still project its ZoI?
Answer: Yes.

Question: May air units move through battle hexes in the middle of a leg?
Answer: Probably - Herman made passing comment the effect that this is prohibited, but that appears to be a reading rather than his intent, and subsequently he seems to have reconsidered.


Question: May an air unit using strategic transport leave an unneutralized enemy ZoI?
Answer: No, see 7.35A.

Question: Does an air unit using strategic transport neutralize enemy ZoI's?
Answer: Undoubtedly it should be treated like a carrier using Strategic Naval Movement (See 7.21).

Question: If a lone air unit (or carrier) starts immediately next to an enemy air unit, may it use strategic movement to move out of the neutralized enemy ZoI, or does the neutralization immediately cease as soon as it moves?
Answer: Unclear, but it always has the option to use regular movement.

Question: May a "dotted" air unit withdraw?
Answer: No.

Question: May an air unit withdrawal be combined with other moves?
Answer: No, it takes an entire card - see 5.0.

Question: Must an air unit be in supply to withdraw?
Answer: Probably not. This question has been asked several times and never answered. Herman probably feels that 5.0 is sufficient to answer the question, and does not recognize the ambiguity of 7.33 which describes it as a movement option.

7.34, 7.48

Question: Can the two SEAC Commonwealth air units stack together as a single unit?
Answer: No.


Question: If a LRB does not neutralize enemy ZoI's, doesn't that mean an enemy air unit within 2 hexes can put it out of supply?
Answer: Yes, that's why you want to stack them with fighters a la 7.34.


Question: What is the meaning of "in supply port" in context of strategic ground transport?
Answer: The port must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source.


Question: Can you move directly into Singapore? what is its terrain?
Answer: Hexsides determine movement. Thus you can move into Bangka, even though it is a separate island. Like any hex, Singapore has the terrain in the majority of its hex, Mixed.

Question: May a Reaction unit use the transport route rate to move into a battle hex if it is not enemy occupied (i.e. attacked solely by air units)?
Answer: No.

Question: Do enemy naval units or HQ's prevent use of the transport route rate?
Answer: Yes both are units which occupy the hex. Note that this means sometimes reaction movement will allow a ground unit to move a good distance over the ocean in reactive amphibious assault, while a nearby ground unit on a transport route will be unable to reach the hex.

Question: If a naval unit is attacking (or supporting) a hex at range, from a coastal hex with a transport route, does it prevent its use?
Answer: Unclear. The rules say yes, but the "co-location" rulings (6.26) say no.


Question: Can a ground unit disengage into an enemy occupied hex?
Answer: No.

Question: How does ground disengagement work with multiple units?
Answer: Combine the attack strength of all Reactive units in the hex, combine the attack strength of the Offensive unit stack, and compare.

Question: Would enemy air/naval units or suprise attack affect this?
Answer: No, it is part of Offensive movement, before the intelligence condition or battle hexes have been determined.


Question: Can you use the same trick as described in the play note of 7.45 B, accompanying a Strategic Ground Transport with a carrier, to suppress enemy ZoI?
Answer: Yes, but the carrier may only make a regular naval move.


Question: Does Amphibious Assault always cause a Battle?
Answer: No, see last line of 7.4. Amphibious Assault is one of the two ways to move ground units by sea. Strategic Ground Transport can only be used in specific circumstances. Amphibious Assault can be used between any two coastal hexes. The destination can be a port or non-port coastal hex, whether or not enemy controlled which may or may not cause battle. What is important is that it uses an ASP resource.

Question: Is Oahu or Leyte/Samar a single hex island?
Answer: A one hex island must have six water hexsides, so no.

Question: If a enemy naval unit reacts into an unopposed AA target hex, without using Special Reaction, can the AA be canceled because there is no friendly naval unit?
Answer: No, while the naval unit can react into the enemy occupied hex, this does not cause a battle (except for SR) and so there would be no battle for the AA unit to lose. The naval unit would leave during PBM.

Question: Can a carrier "pick up" a ground unit as part of naval move?
Answer: No, 7.21 prohibits this. They must start the Offensive stacked together. But the carrier can move first to suppress enemy ZoI's.

Question: If all naval escort is eliminated in air/naval battle, do AA ground units take a step loss?
Answer: No, the step loss only applies if at the end of movement the ground units are unescorted.

Question: When would an AA-ing ground unit find itself in an unneutralized enemy ZoI involuntarily?
Answer: None known - the rule is probably intended to cover unanticipated reaction events.

Question: If the AA'ed hex is in an enemy ZoI neutralized by an attacking carrier, and the carrier is sunk by an attack reaction card, is the AA canceled?
Answer: No, the card takes effect before combat but after movement, so no cancellation.


Question: What happens if the IJ player SRs into an intially unoccupied one hex island?
Answer: Nothing, the language "controlled and occupied" is intended to allow US Army units to AA during Reaction without restriction.


Question: If a Japanese Offensive AA using organic naval unit transport capacity is defeated, may the naval brigade and naval unit retreat to separate locations?
Answer: Unclear. Usually you would want to keep them together to begin with, but there doesn't seem to be a restriction on splitting them in a retreat.

Question: If a Japanese Reaction AA using organic naval unit transport capacity loses the naval unit in air/naval combat, is the brigade lost as well?
Answer: No.


Question: If a "dotted" unit is overstacked, can it be placed on the game turn record track?
Answer: No, once removed from the map, it's gone.


Question: How can I get a HQ out of Japan and forward to the front lines?
Answer: Generally, you use a cheap OC card on the last play to withdraw the HQ to the turn track, then bring it in as a reinforcement at the beginning of the next turn. See 7.54 and 7.56. Note you need first to move units out of Japan to avoid attrition.


Question: How does the HQ range work with its various functions?
Answer: HQ's are used for activation, reinforcement and replacement, supply, and attrition as follows:
HQ restrictionsPath restrictions
activationsupplied; national commandoccupied hexes and unneutralized ZoI's on sea hexsides block
rein./repl. and supplysupplied; national commandoccupied hexes and unplayable or unneutralized ZoI's on sea hexsides block
land->sea at friendly port; sea->land at friendly port or 1-hex
survival and reaction HQ--

Question: How does unplayable land affect paths?
Answer: Not directly, but land paths must transition to sea when crossing such a hexside.

Question: What if an enemy ZoI coincides exactly with a unplayable land hexside?
Answer: Good question - you could allow supply as unplayable land is just an artifact of the hex grid, OTOH you do not allow sea supply through unplayable sea hexsides, so choose your poison.


Question: Can an activation path be traced from Kure to Sasebo?
Answer: Yes, note that activation is not affected by unplayable sea or land. Supply is another question.


Question: May ABDA or Malaysia HQ be voluntarily withdrawn?
Answer: No, see last sentence in 7.5.


Question: When, precisely, is a lone HQ unit removed from the map?
Answer: After battle, which is caused by entry of Offensives forces, even though victory will be automatic if the Reactive player cannot react forces to the hex.


Question: How are HQ's brought in if not early?
Answer: See 9.11.

Question: May HQ's brought in early be placed in unneutralized enemy ZoI's?
Answer: It would seem contrary to the spirit of the rules...

8.11, 8.12, 8.2 B

Question: Is combat mandatory? May unactivated units fight?
Answer: Units in battle hexes or who left battle hexes must fight, but (Offensives) air/carriers in range may. No, except for unactivated Reactive units in the Battle hex.


Question: Who allocates damage first? - This was motivated by an interesting case that arose in play. Both players were fighting an air/naval battle with CV's and BB's. The forces and damage inflicted was such that if the IJ player targeted the US BB's and the US targeted the CV's, the IJ player could win the battle. Otherwise both players would prefer to target the CV's.
Answer: Damage is allocated simultaneously and where it matters would be done secretly.

Question: May a player without air/naval still roll in air/naval combat for critical hits?
Answer: No.

8.2 B

Question: A unmodified '9' modified to more than 9 is still a critical hit, correct?
Answer: Correct.

Question: Given than non-carrier naval units escorting carriers at range can take damage, but do not cause damage, is there ever any reason not to put them in the battle hex?
Answer: Generally no, but the Japanese player may chose to keep them with carrier at range 3, to avoid the +2 ZoI drm to the intelligence roll. They could still take damage that might otherwise hurt the carriers.

8.2 F 1

Question: May a player assign less than enough attack factors to an enemy unit, in order to avoid eliminating it? (For example, "immortal" Allied air units.)
Answer: No, "hits" can be applied as a player wishes, within the rules, but an exact "hit" worth of attack factors must be assigned as long as they can be.

Question: Do air units operating at extended range have their defense strength halved?
Answer: No.

8.2 F 2

Question: May a one step unit like the Hermes be "reduced"?
Answer: No, it may not be eliminated until all two step units have been reduced.

8.2 F 4

Question: If Japan has an air/carrier unit in the battle hex and one outside, and the US has one outside, may the US apply a step loss to the Japanese unit outside the battle hex?
Answer: All your air/carriers, in the battle hex or at range, match up against the opponent's at range air/carriers. Thus the US unit outside the battle hex may match up against the Japanese outside, and both Japanese units are vulnerable.

Question: If Japan has an air/carrier unit the battle hex and one outside, and the US has two outside, may the Japanese apply step losses to both US units?
Answer: Again, the Japanese have two units which may match up with the two US units outside the battle hex, so both US units are vulnerable.

8.2 F 6

Question: The Yamato (18-18) is attacked by the reduced Massachusetts (8-16) and the Baltimore (8-10) supported by the Casablanca (6-8-2) two hexes away. The Japanese roll a '9' for a critical hit. What happens? What if the Yamato were reduced (9-18)?
Answer: The Yamato has 18 AF's. Ordinarily it would have to reduce the Baltimore first and then discard the remaining 8 points. But because it has a critical hit, it can ignore rule 2 and sink the Massachusetts instead. If it were reduced, it would be unable to hit either the Massachusetts or the Baltimore. It does have enough AF's to hit the Casablanca, but the Casablanca is protected by rule 4 "match up". However, because it is still a critical hit, it can apply a hit against the weakest unprotected opponent - the Baltimore. If the Casablanca alone attacked, it could score a critical hit against the Yamato, but the Yamato, having no air support, could not hurt the Casablanca.

Question: Can ground units take critical hits?
Answer: Yes, although critical hits are associated with naval catastrophes, nothing in the rules prevents ground units from being reduced according to the critical hit rule.

8.2 F 7

Question: If IJ forces are ambushed, is the Japanese Naval Aircraft Range Advantage applied before or after the IJ return fire?
Answer: Unclear.


Question: Do bonuses to attack values (like Salvo Island) apply when determining the winner?
Answer: Yes.


Question: What happens if the Reaction player wins the air/naval battle, but the hex is being both assaulted by both land and sea?
Answer: The AA'ing units do not participate, but will not retreat if the hex is taken by the ground assaulting units. It is unclear if the Reaction player benefits from the +3 DRM.


Question: What cards besides Col. Tsugi provide final drm values?
Answer: None, all others are cumulative.

Question: If there are no reactive air units in the battle hex, the Offensives player gets +2 air superiority DRM, correct?
Answer: No, all participating air units must be eliminated.

Question: Would the presence of a carrier count for both the +2 shore bombardment and the +2 air superiority modifiers?
Answer: Yes, +4.

Question: What does the note "There is no modifier for City type terrain" mean?
Answer: That the modifier of the other terrain in the hex is used.

Question: What modifiers apply if a Reactive unit is attacked by both amphibious and ground assault in the same battle?
Answer: The Reactive unit would benefit from the +3 drm for its combat die roll. The amphibiously assaulting Offensives units would have their defense strengths halved, while the ground assaulting units would retain full strength.


Question: Is it really correct that the Offensives player gets to retreat Reaction ground units?
Answer: Yes.

Question: May the Offensives player retreat Reaction ground forces into an overstacked situation if alternatives exist - with or without named locations?
Answer: No.

Question: This rule says the Reactive unit can be retreated into any friendly hex, except one's the Offensive units entered from. Isn't this redundant?
Answer: No, remember Reactive units can move into the Battle hex after the Offensive moves.

Question: What is an adjacent hex?
Answer: A hex directly connected by a playable land hexside.


Question: What is the meaning of "in supply" hex in context of retreat destinations?
Answer: Probably the hex must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source.


Question: May defeated AA ground units retreat out of an unneutralized enemy ZoI?
Answer: Yes.

Question: May defeated AA ground units retreat through and out of an unneutralized enemy ZoI, for example that of an air unit in the battle hex itself?
Answer: Possibly - this would seem to be the more usual case.


Question: What is the meaning of "in supply" port hex in context of placement?
Answer: Probably the hex must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source.

Question: May a HQ, particularly ADBA, be placed in an unneutralized opposing aircraft ZoI, if its presense instantly neutralizes that ZoI?
Answer: No.

Question: May a HQ be placed in a friendly port where a supply path cannot be traced to an ultimate supply source, but where the presense of an HQ will alter the supply situation such that a supply path from an ultimate supply source to the HQ will now exist?
Answer: The phrase "where it would instantly be in supply" seems to hint at this, but perhaps that is not what was intended.


Question: Does the sentence "Each player's reinforcements are placed simultaneously (Allied first then Japanese)..." mean that Allied reinforcements cannot affect placement of Japanese reinforements?
Answer: Allied reinforcements are placed simultaneously (i.e. they cannot affect the placement of other Allied reinforcements), then Japanese are placed simultaneously. The legal placement of Japanese units may have been affected by Allied placement.


Question: Does the wording here intend that delayed reinforcements be positioned before those arriving on schedule?
Answer: No, it's a check to insure that reinforcements don't get delayed twice.


Question: If a unit is delayed due to an event or blocked entry, and WIE is zero, what happens?
Answer: Nothing.

Question: Do US air unit pairs make a combined or separate Sent to Europe rolls?
Answer: Separate rolls.


Question: May replacements returning from the deadpile and "treated identically" to reinforcements be placed taking advantage of reinforcement HQ's placed in the reinforcement segment?
Answer: Yes.

Question: Is Delay/Diversion part of the identical treatment of replacements?
Answer: No.

Question: How are EC Replacements treated?
Answer: According to the same restrictions as scheduled replacements.


Question: Are 'dotted' unit ineligible for replacements or for being brought back from the deadpile?
Answer: The former, and therefore the latter.


Question: May other non-Corps sized units be brought in as replacements?
Answer: Yes, all non-pre-war units may be brought in as replacements.


Note: 2016 Sumatra should be 2017 and 2119 Java should be 2220.


Question: What is the meaning of "in supply" airfield hex in context of B29 attacks?
Answer: The hex must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source as if an HQ. Note that there is no need for an air unit present.

Question: If a B-29 conducts Strategic Bombing, may it activate during an Offensive in order to move, but not to attack?
Answer: No.

Question: Must B-29's in China be in supply to conduct Strategic Bombing?
Answer: Not according to this rule, but supply state has been newly defined in 12.74.


Question: Do plain hexes change control when a nation surrenders?
Answer: Probably. Note it can make a difference where naval units are allowed to move in support of ground units...


Question: Won't the surrender of India cause any HQ in Mainland India to be involuntarily withdrawn according to 7.55, and thus put Ceylon or the Maldives OOS?
Answer: The Japanese do not take control of Mainland India, so 7.55 does not apply, and the HQ can be placed on the islands. However, it may not be necessary to have an HQ, see 12.63.

Question: Are the mountain hexes north of the Ledo road part of Northern India or China?
Answer: They are not listed as part of Northern India, and if they are part of China, no one can enter, so they would be unplayable. On the other hand, one might be able to trace through them...


Question: Can IJ naval forces only attack at range, or may they enter Mainland India hexes?
Answer: IJ naval units may enter Mainland India for air/naval battles.


Question: How do Gandhi event cards effect India Surrender?
Answer: This question is frequently asked. It appears that the only time one can have an effect is after one turn of Indian Unrest caused by Japanese control of Northern India, where it would move the India marker to India Unstable, immediately. If both are played the same turn Japan takes control of Northern India, again the India marker would move to India Unstable. Otherwise, any Allied control would keep India Stable, and Gandi card play does not count as an additional turn of of Unrest/Instability.

Question: If the Commonwealth controls Northern India, but did not conduct an AA, attack, or card play, can they quell the Unrest?
Answer: Yes, the point is they control some of it.

Question: When, exactly, does India surrender?
Answer: During NSS, if India Status is at Unstable (2nd Turn) and IJ has maintained complete control of Nothern India for the entire turn, India surrenders. If the Status is Unstable, it moves to Unstable (2nd Turn).

Question: What happens if, after a NSS where IJ controls all of Northern India, the Allies recapture a hex, but then lose it before the next NSS?
Answer: Any interruption of IJ control of any part of Northern India resets the cycle. It is not clear if this means India Status always goes to Stable, or if goes to Unrest if the IJ player has complete control at NSS. Furthermore, it is not clear how Gandhi cards should be treated. One card will not make a difference, but if both cards have been played, perhaps the status should be Unstable.

Question: Wouldn't the whole thing be simpler if any Allied control immediately moved the India Status to Stable, rather than waiting until NSS?
Answer: It would certainly seem so.


Question: What is the meaning of "in supply" hexes in context of evacuation of India?
Answer: Probably the hex must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source.


Question: Do air units use their whole move or just one leg to enter China?
Answer: One leg.

Question: May non-B-29 air units always enter China as reinforcements?
Answer: It may be necessary then Kunming is in supply, as reinforements are normally restricted to in supply airfields.

Question: May non-B-29 air units enter China as replacements?
Answer: Unclear. On the one hand, replacements are treated as reinforcements, on the other 12.72C refers only to the Reinforcement Segment.

Question: May non-B-29 air units enter China anytime?
Answer: Maybe they have the same restrictions as in 12.74.

Question: May air units (B-29 or non-B-29) leave China anytime?
Answer: Yes. Kunming must be in supply. It is unclear how to trace activation.

Question: May air units in China participate in a battle at an air field in Northern India? anywhere else?
Answer: Yes, as part of an Offensives or Reaction activation, although the activation requirement remains unclear.

Question: May IJ air units in a Northern India airfield attack air units in China?
Answer: Unclear, consistency would say yes.

12.73, 9.23, 11.31

Question: If a B-29 is placed on the Game Turn track due to China Surrender, may it be delayed?
Answer: 9.23 would seem to be more specific.

Question: Would a B-29 returning after China Surrender be allowed to conduct Strategic Bombing?
Answer: Apparently.


Question: What does no Hump is in effect in conjunction with a friendly controlled Northern Indian airfields mean?
Answer: It's intended to negate the whole phrase. In other words, if the Hump is not in effect, or there are no friendly controlled airfields in Northern India.

Question: Is the limit of one B-29 in China per turn entry, or total?
Answer: Total.


Question: Does China surrender affect the Allied control of interior China?
Answer: No.

12.75, 12.76, 13.31

Question: What is the meaning of "in supply Allied airfield" hexe in context of the Hump?
Answer: Probably the hex must be able to trace a supply line to an ultimate supply source.


Question: How may IJ intrinsic infatry steps remain in China hexes when the track reaches zero?
Answer: One, as indicated by the on-map track.

Question: Does Hong Kong have an intrinsic garrison even though it is not a part of Japanese occupied China?
Answer: Yes.


Question: What happens to intrinsic units if they lose the battle, but do not take a hit?
Answer: They are eliminated because they cannot retreat.


Question: If Australia surrenders, are Australian units in the Delayed Reinforcement box lost, or unaffected?
Answer: Unaffected.


Question: Is the ANZAC HQ part of the Australian reinforcements?
Answer: It doesn't have a yellow stripe or unit box, so no.


Question: Are the difference from Mandate Control intentional?
Answer: No, control is determined in the National Status Segment, and only opposing ground units retain control.


Question: What is a supply path?
Answer: A supply path is a hex path traced by ground or naval movement rules. The path may only switch movement modes at friendly ports. A coastal hex can be supplied by either mode. The path is blocked by any enemy unit, including intrisic garrisons, except at either end of the path. An unneutralized enemy ZoI will block the path if using naval movement.

Question: Is supply checked every time a ZoI has an effect?
Answer: Yes, although it should be easy to determine most of the time. But remember that activated units remain in supply and therefore project ZoI throughout an Offensives phase.

Question: So what does this mean, exactly?
Answer: Supply is most important to attrition, replacement and reinforcement, and activation. During an Offensives segment, the Offensives player will be concerned with enemy ZoI's interfering with strategic movement and AA. And with preventing reaction movement. Generally it is easier to neutralize an enemy ZoI with a carrier's or air unit's ZoI, but in principle it is possible to cut supply to an enemy unit projecting a ZoI. Much more likely is cutting off a certain number of enemy units to prevent their reaction movement. This is more likely to involve carriers than air units which need friendly air fields. Note that 7.21 restricts the hexes a carrier may legally end its turn in.

The Reaction player in turn might attempt to prevent failed AA's from retreating. Once defensive perimeters have be established there will be much less opportunity to do this. This would determine which units could activate and which projected ZoI's. Units activated would be in supply and therefore project ZoI's throughout the Offensives segment.

Question: At the start of the '42 scenario, isn't the FEAF air unit in Manila OOS because of the Japanese air unit in 2812?
Answer: No, but the rules cover a difficult issue known as "circular supply". ZoI's require the air or carrier unit to be in supply. Supply can depend on friendly ZoI's neutralizing enemy ZoI's, and on enemy ZoI's interdicting. The means that more than one supply solution might meet all the supply rules, and we need a way to chose among them. The FEAF situation is one of two base cases. If FEAF projects its ZoI, it protects its supply. If it does not, it is not in supply. If one (or more) friendly units can be in or out of supply, the solution is to consider them in. To understand the other case, suppose FEAF and the Japanese air unit got "behind" each other, such that FEAF interdicted the Japanese supply line, and the Japanese unit interdicted the US supply line, If both project ZoIs, both cut each other's supply. If both are out of supply, neither projects a ZoI. So, either one or the other is in supply, but not both nor neither. If either one (or more) Allies or one (or more) Japanese units can be in supply at the same time, but not both, the solution is to favor the Allies.

The following is a formal solution to defining supply. It is not supposed to make it easier to understand. It is meant to provide a foolproof process to decide.

All units are in one of three states: in supply, out of supply, or unknown supply. Unknown supply air and carrier units are assumed to project ZoI's at all times.

The basic supply determination process is to examine each unit with unknown supply. If supply cannot be traced, mark it as out of supply. Repeat the examination from scratch because the out of supply unit might affect other units. When you can no longer find a unit out of supply, stop and mark remaining units as in supply.

Start by marking all Allies as in supply and all Japanese as out of supply.
Repeat the following steps until the supply situation no longer changes.
Mark all out of supply Japanese units as unknown and apply the basic supply determination process.
Mark all in supply Allied units as unknown and apply the basic supply determination process.


Question: May the Tokyo Express counter be placed any time during the Offensive?
Answer: No, only at the begining of the Offensive.

Question: How is the range measured?
Answer: Probably as the crow flies, although a supply line unaffected by enemy units would be an alternative. Remember that the supplied units must still be activated.


Question: In the attrition phase can you supply the reduced Dutch units with an US HQ?
Answer: It cannot "supply" them, but will prevent reduced (and one step) Dutch from being eliminated. Note that unless they get a HQ, Dutch and Australian units are out of supply during Turn 2.

Question: Is Attrition a one or two step process - i.e. may a unit be flipped and removed in the same segment?
Answer: It's a one step process, so no.

Question: Are full strength one step units considered reduced for the purpose of this rule?
Answer: Probably. They have no reduced side to flip to, so the explicit mention of Dutch units should probably apply to all one step units.

Question: Do non-B-29 air units in China suffer attrition?
Answer: Unclear how supply would be traced normally, or if Kunming figures in.


Question: During ISR may the Reactive player fight with activated units of one branch and inactive units of another?
Answer: Surely.


Question: Joint (or Commonweath with air only) HQ's may activated US Army and Navy units together, correct?
Answer: No, the restriction applies to any Allied HQ.

14.2 B

Question: Are ASP's awarded by card play, for example Japanese card #44 Tokyo Express affected?
Answer: No.

Question: Are remaining ASP's halved?
Answer: No, total ASP's are. The IJ player may not use any more if they have already used half or more.

16.2 B

Question: If Japan surrenders due to blockade, do the Allies win?
Answer: Yes.

Question: Does a B-29 in China count as in range of Tokyo?
Answer: Yes.


Question: Must the Alaskan hex be the same single hex?
Answer: Yes.


Question: When does US Political Will increase due to successful Strategic Bombing?
Answer: In the National Status Segment.


Question: Does the penalty apply if the Allied forces are eliminated by the effects of rule 7.45B unescorted AA into an enemy naval unit occupied hex?
Answer: Unclear, depends whether this counts as a battle or not.


Question: Does capture of Harbin and Mukden with the Manchuria card count?
Answer: Sure.

16.49 B

Question: How exactly is bidding done?
Answer: A bid for the Allies is how many PW points you are willing to give up. A bid for the Japanese is how many PW points you are willing to offer to add. The large bid wins same side choices and makes the bidded adjustment. If different sides are picked, subtract the Allied bid from the Japanese bid and adjust the PW point start by that amount.

Question: If I like to play one side, but feel I need a handicap, can I bid negative points?
Answer: No, it would yield a bad result when players pick opposite sides.

Question: Is US PW limited to 10 points?
Answer: No.


Question: Is forcing naval escort the only effect of the subs?
Answer: No. In addition, they prevent air-naval results from affecting ground units, and prevent the +2 shore bombardment DRM in ground combat.


Question: Does the Allied player announce his choice?
Answer: Yes.

17.27 I, 17.38 I

Question: Does this mean the Japanese player can essentially receive double benefit from Hawaii or China?
Answer: Yes.

17.31, 18.0

Question: Does the 5th Chinese Army start at full strength or reduced?
Answer: Reduced, the Master Scenario Set Up List is definitive.


Question: How can an IJ naval unit stand in the Air Ferry hex?
Answer: It must include a carrier attacking Kauai or Midway.


Question: Is it an oversight that the US XI Corps and 11th Airborne Division are not in the Delayed Reinforcement box due to ISR?
Answer: Unclear.

Note: The 8th Australian division should be listed as eliminated at start.


Question: Should Nauru have a IJ control marker on it?
Answer: Unclear.


Note: The Allied ASP should start at 8.

17.48 N

Question: Does this mean possession of any hex by the Allies will cancel the 5VPs?
Answer: No, the rule should specify "port".

17.48 S

Question: Does "port/airfield" mean port or airfield or does it mean port and airfield?
Answer: Port and airfield (or just port as Hainan is out of range anyway...).


Question: Is skipping the Reinforcement and Strategic Warfare Segements part of the setup requirements?
Answer: Yes.


Page 41 Philippines

Question: Why doesn't the 21st and 23d Air Flotilla move from 3009 to 2909 and attack at full strength?
Answer: Historical quirk.

Question: In step 11 Battle Resolution, shouldn't the IJ ground attack suffer a -2 for attacking a Mixed terrain hex?
Answer: Yes.

Page 42 Game Turn 2

Question: In the paragraph Game Turn 2, where do the four additional US units subject to diverture to Europe come from?
Answer: They are not additional. They are the originally scheduled reinforcements just now placed in the Delay box.

Question: Is the statement that diverted units are permanently removed correct?
Answer: No.


Question: Japanese card 1 - Operation Z Attack on Pearl Harbor - how do the Japanese naval units move in Post Battle Movement?
Answer: The same way they did during the Offensive - 18 hexes.

Note: There are additional restrictions in 17.11.

Question: Japanese card 2 - IAI-Operation No. 1 - must Force Z react?
Answer: Yes, it allows the Japanese to set them up.

Question: What happens if IJ forces attack at range from a hex which Force Z can react into?
Answer: Cannot happen as Force Z can only react into an AA hex.

Question: May Force Z react if Singapore is a battle hex?
Answer: Yes, Allied player's choice.

Note: There are additional restrictions in 17.11.

Question: Japanese card 3 - Col. Tsugi, Unit 82 - is the +4 die roll modifier offset by terrain modifiers? air or naval superiority?
Answer: No, see 8.4.

Question: Japanese card 9 - Read Admiral Matami Ugaki - how far may an AA'ing ground unit move?
Answer: Per 7.4, AA units move in the same manner and rate as naval units for the Offensive - therefore 21 hexes.

Question: How far may a Reaction forces move?
Answer: The basic rate x the OP - EC bonuses only affect the Offensives units.

Question: Japanese cards 18 - Bridge on River Kwai - must the Japanese control hex 2010?
Answer: No, but it will become part of the transport route.

Question: Japanese cards 19, 22, 64 - Weather - is a "Remove from Play" EC discarded or removed?
Answer: Discarded, see 5.32 D.

Question: Japanese card 20 - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal - can the Allies escape the consequences by reacting air units out of the battle hex?
Answer: Yes, the card is intended to work best when a surprise attack is achieved.

Question: Japanese card 21 - Mahatma Gandhi - must SEAC declare a battle? must the reduced Indian unit be activated?
Answer: No there are no requirements on the card. It acts like a Weather card.

Question: May the card be played after the Intelligence Roll?
Answer: Yes, according to the rules, but the ruling on the Weather cards (5.32 D) raises a question.

Question: Japanese cards 24, 27, 36, 75, Allied 68 - Submarine Attack ... - would a "naval unit" include ground units making an amphibious assault or using strategic ground transport?
Answer: No, those are ground units.

Question: Japanese card 27 - Submarine Attack ... - can this card sink two Allied naval units?
Answer: Unclear. A strict reading of the text indicates the card may target one Allied naval unit if no battles have been declared, and one or two if battles have been declared, but can only sink one unit total. However this may have been unintended.

Question: Japanese card 28, 44 - ...Tokyo Express... - can the Tokyo Express marker be placed inland?
Answer: Sure.

Question: Can the TE marker be placed in an Allied controlled hex even though the cards say "Place...in any Japanese controlled hex."?
Answer: Uh, unclear. Herman has answered this yes, but it seems ill-advised. A better question would be when must the TE marker be placed? This is a general question about the application of any card bonus, including reinforcements. There doesn't seem to be any restrictions on the timing, so an answer to this question would simply be wait and see if the AA succeeds, then place the TE marker.

Question: Japanese card 31 - New Operation Plan - may this bonus apply to Offensive AA's?
Answer: Yes, no restriction.

Question: Japanese card 33 - Imperial Intervention - may one replace a Future Offensive?
Answer: No apparent restriction.

Question: Must the card be used to end ISR, in order for the card replacement to take effect?
Answer: No.

Question: Does the replacement count as one of the three per turn allowed card draws?
Answer: No.

Question: Japanese card 35 - Operation KE - how far may the ground units move?
Answer: Unclear if the move is unlimited, or would be 30 hexes as any 3 OP strategic naval move.

Question: Do the units need to be activated?
Answer: No, there are no restrictions on the state of the units other than location.

Question: Japanese card 39 - Subhas Chandra Bose - can the replacements be used to enter eliminated unit(s)?
Answer: No.

Question: Japanese card 58, 59, 60 - ... Force - how exactly does this card work?
Answer: Note: the correction in the Official Corrections and Clarifications has been overridden. The card is now interpreted literally. At any time during the offensive, place an IJ control marker on an appropriate hex and eliminate no more than one Dutch regiment in the hex. The control marker will cause an HQ to involuntarily withdraw, and air/naval to emergency move (or if activate in reaction to PBM) at the end of the turn as usual, unless a ground unit is in the hex, in which case control reverts to the Allies. The hex is not a battle hex, but if the Allies can move a ground unit through the hex during Reaction Movement, the hex would immediately revert to Allied control, preventing PBM dislocations.

Question: Japanese cards 61, 62, 63, 66, 81 - Kamikaze Attack - must the air unit be activate?
Answer: No, it does not even have to be in supply.

Question: Japanese card 65 - Yamato Suicide Run - can a reduced Yamato be eliminated?
Answer: Yes, it always loses a step.

Question: Japanese cards 67, 68 - Japanese Army/Navy - see Japanese card 33.

Question: Japanese card 71 - High Altitude Interceptors - is the affected B-29 choosen before it rolls, or after (a successful) roll?
Answer: Unclear.

Question: Japanese card 72 - Carrier Conversion - must replacement steps used this turn be used immediately?
Answer: The card does not seem to say so, but others like it do.

Question: Japanese card 77 - Fuel Shortage - how exactly is the move performed?
Answer: There does not seem to be any limit on the length of the move. The HQ would presumably move like an AA'ing or naval unit. Stacks containing carriers would move through enemy ZoI's.

Question: How is the 3 hex range measured and must the resource hex be friendly controlled?
Answer: As the crow flies and no.

Question: May the units be placed in different ports?
Answer: No. Note card refers to a singular "hex".

Question: May the Combined Fleet be moved from the Turn Track?
Answer: No, the move must be on the map.

Question: Japanese card 80 - ...Panama Canal - does the card or rule 9.23 take precedence?
Answer: Technically, the card, but in this case surely rule 9.23.

Question: Allied card 9 - Olympic and Coronet - does "Japanese Islands" refer to "Japan" islands or "Japanese Home Islands"?
Answer: Probably "Japanese Home Islands" as with Allied cards 16 and 78.

Question: Allied card 10 - General Douglas MacArthur - see Japanese card 33.

Question: Allied card 16 - Makin Is. Raid - does "Japanese Islands" refer to "Japan" islands or "Japanese Home Islands"?
Answer: Japanese Home Islands.

Question: Does this mean the card applies to hexes which are islands but not "Japanese Home Islands", or any hex which is not a "Japanese Home Island"?
Answer: Unclear.

Question: Does the HQ or target hex need to be in supply?
Answer: No.

Question: Allied card 20 - Halsey Replaces Ghormley - must the Halsey HQ obey reinforcement restrictions?
Answer: Only when it enters as a reinforcement. When it replaces Ghormley, it is considered a change in command, and may be placed in an IJ air unit ZoI, etc.

Question: If Ghormley is on the Turn Track, how does the replacement work?
Answer: Halsey can be placed in any friendly in supply port, and Ghormley is removed from the game.

Question: Allied card 22 - Orde Wingate Chindits - what Japanese ground units are eligible for activation cancellation?
Answer: Any one that activates in Burma or Northern India.

Question: What happens if the canceled active unit caused a Ground Disengagement?
Answer: Bad things, so don't allow both...

Question: Allied card 24 - Skip Bombing Attack - if no battle hex is declared may this card be used?
Answer: Yes, "prior to battle" refers only to timing.

Question: Who choses what?
Answer: The Japanese player choose which stack and the Allied player chooses which naval unit.

Question: Is it ever necessary for two light naval vessels to travel as a stack?
Answer: Yes, when transporting brigades for AA and stacked with a carrier to neutralize Allied ZoI's. At other times, the Japanese player should be allowed to informally move naval units together, without being disadvantaged by this card.

Note: The above two answers were proposed by a player to explain the card text and confirmed by Herman. However, re-examining it, I believe there is a more satisfactory interpretation. It appears the Allied player may choose which vessel is targeted by the US air unit, but if more than one air unit can be used, the Japanese player chooses which air unit. Rather odd, but it is a simple fit to the card text.

Question: May the air unit use parenthesized extended range?
Answer: Yes, by literal reading although it violates the logic of parenthesized extended range.

Question: May the card be played just for the Bonus?
Answer: No, it can only be played as a reaction event if the conditions can be met.

Question: Allied card 25 - Operation Cascade - must the island be unoccupied after Reaction?
Answer: Unclear.

Question: Allied card 25 - Operation Lilliput - are the unusual OP, OC and EC values correct?
Answer: Yes.

Question: Allied card 27 - Operation Vengeance - may this be used if the Combined Fleet in on the Game Turn track?
Answer: Probably it is replaced on the track.

Question: Allied card 30 - Operation Sandcrab-Cottage - may this card be played as an OC if a Japanese unit occupies the Aleutians?
Answer: No, it may only be played as an EC, or discarded.

Question: Allied card 38 - Operation Tarzan - can one chose a HQ that cannot activate a Chinese unit, to avoid the restriction?
Answer: No. If the Chinese unit is out of supply, presumably the requirement should be skipped.

Question: Allied card 43 - /Tojo Resigns - can the card lower US Political Will to less than zero?
Answer: No, and this can be important if liberation or Strategic Bombing adds points in the NSS.

Question: Allied card 45 - /Operation Sho-Go - can this card modify two Kamikaze attacks?
Answer: Seems unlikely.

Question: Allied card 48 - New China Army - can the replacement step be used after combat?
Answer: No, it must be used before movement, but if no opportunity exists, the rest of the Bonus still applies.

Question: Allied card 52 - Roosevelt-Nimitz-MacArthur - see Japanese card 33.

Question: Allied card 55 - Operation Forager - could an inactive Japanese air unit which emergeny moves out of a battle hex be hit?
Answer: The intent appears to allow any participating unit to be hit. Perhaps the timing should be taken to be at the end of combat.

Question: Allied card 60 - 20th Bomber Command and card 67 - Curtis LeMay - must the conditions of 11.31 apply?
Answer: Unclear.

Question: Allied card 61 - Submarine Attack Darter-Dace - how exactly is the target determined?
Answer: If there is a battle, the Japanese player distributes losses among all activated naval units as he sees fit. If no battle, the Japanese player chooses one unit to take the losses. This may allow him to avoid a second step loss.

Question: Allied cards 62 - Operation King II and 65 - MacArthur "moral obligation" - can these cards be used if the Japanese have abandoned the Philippines?
Answer: If a battle hex cannot be declared, the card must be used as an OC.

Question: Allied card 65 - MacArthur "moral obligation" - could this be played to end ISR even though no offensive could take place?
Answer: No, not according to the card, but see discussion about 5.32 D.

Question: Allied card 67,68 - Japanese Army/Navy Central Agreement - may the replacment card be the self-same Central Agreement?
Answer: No, a card does not enter the discard pile until all effects are completed, so it is not available to draw.

Question: Allied card 69 - S-Day - what exactly are the conditions on using the 11th Airborne Division?
Answer: It appears intended that it be stacked with an LRB air unit. Like Kamikaze or Operation KE, it wouldn't require activation or even supply.

Question: Allied card 72 - Halsey Carrier Raids on Japan when is the card removed from the IJ hand?
Answer: From the wording, it would appear to occur after battle and therefore after the IJ player resolves any reaction cards.

Question: Allied card 78 - British X Craft Attack Singapore is played before a battle (or immediately after an Offensive without Battle), but targets a non-activated naval step - how can that be in the Battle?
Answer: It's not. Battle just determines the timing.

Does "Japanese Islands" refer to "Japan" islands or "Japanese Home Islands"?
Answer: Japanese Home Islands.

Question: Allied card 79 - Soviets Invade Manchuria - may this be played as an event if Tojo has not resigned?
Answer: Yes, black text only would apply. If Tojo has resigned all text applies.

Question: If the China Marker is in the "Major Breakthrough" box, does it move to the "Unstable Front" box or not at all?
Answer: It moves to "Unstable Front", despite the card wording.

Question: It the deck reshuffled if the card is discarded?
Answer: Note rule 5.37. If the card is discarded, the Special Event (either China or China and Manchuria) occurs, and then the deck is or is not reshuffled per the card text.

Question: Allied card 80 - New Submarine Doctrine - do the Submarine Warfare modifiers the Japanese lose include the defective torpedoes +1 (11.22 B)?
Answer: Yes.

Quick Start Set Up Map

Note: The Dutch 8th Regiment at Koepang (2721). and the US Asia DD naval unit at Tarakan (2616) are missing from the display.


Question: What is the name of 3219?
Answer: Vogelkop.

Question: The War in Europe track say US reinforcements are delayed. Is this correct?
Answer: Per rules, all Allied reinforcements except HQ's and B-29's are delayed.

Question: Is there any meaning to the drab hexes in India and the USSR?
Answer: No.

Question: Are the partial hexes in interior Australia playable?
Answer: In general, if the hex has a number, it is playable, if not, not. Full ocean hexes under titles, like 2613, are always playable, however.

Question: How can naval units move to and from Davao?
Answer: To the southeast, 3016.

Question: Can 3226 be AA'ed or is it protected by unplayable ocean?
Answer: Unclear. It is a printing error, but whether the error is that there should be blue ocean, or no ocean at all is unclear. It is the only candidate for a non-coastal airfield in Australia. The hexes 2724 and 3326 are similarly ambiguous.

Question: Is a ground move between Seoul and Honshu permissible?
Answer: Undoubtedly no.

Question: Should Hainan have an airfield?
Answer: No.

Question: Where exactly is Cam Ranh port?
Answer: Hex 2311 per setup rules.

Question: Can you move between Oahu and Hawaii?
Answer: No, Maui should be unplayable land.

Question: From which hexes is Rangoon accessible by sea?
Answer: All but 2107.

Question: From which hexes is Kure accessible by sea?
Answer: All but 3406 and 3506.