This is my crude translation of the rules to Fontenoy, 1745.This French game is found in issue 6 of Vae Victus magazine. All the games from this company have simple rules and great counter graphics.Email me if you want their address.
FONTENOY 1745 A game by Laurent MANCEAUX and Nicolas STRATIGOS. With the collaboration of the ACPW FONTENOY 1745 is a simulation of the great battle that saw the French army, commanded by the marshal of Saxony, face the coalition forces of the Anglo-Hanovriens and Dutch, for the possession of Flanders, May 11th 1745. This game requires the use of one die with six sides (noted 1d6). One players control the French army, placed in defensive positions, the other the allied army which seeks carry the day in order to raise the siege of Tournai. For simplification, the abbreviation hex could be used for hexagon in the rules. 0 - Introduction 0.1- Game Scales. A game turn represents an hour of real time, the game lasting seven turns. A hexagon on the map corresponds to 200 m. An infantry counter represents one, two or three battalions (at a rate of one combat point per battalion), that is to say the equivalent of a demibrigade. One cavalry counter represents from four to eight squadrons (at rate of a combat point per three or four squadrons). Each combat point is equivalent to 450-600 men. 0.2- placement of units and terrain The placement of the units is indicated on the map and on the order of battle pp 30. The placement of the allied units is free, to the limits defined for each corps. The village of Fontenoy (hex. 1518) is regarded exclusively like a redoubt. 1- Troop Counters (diagram 1) The infantry and cavalry units are grouped in corps, by command, identified by the color of their symbol. This organization operates for the rules of activation of corps, the units of same corps always acting together (see 5). The brigades, the basic tactical units, are represented by one or two counters (numbered consecutively) according to size. Each infantry and cavalry counter has a combat factor, a movement potential and, in red, a morale rating. Following losses in combat, the units could lose combat points. One uses the back of counter then (or the replacement counter for the units of three combat points which already underwent a reversal) in order to indicate this reduction. But units never can voluntarily themselves~~ divide~~ into two weaker units, nor regroup their strengths in one stronger counter. 2- Facing (diagram 2) All units follow the rules of facing (front of the unit) which influence movement and combat. Infantry Infantry units have two frontal hexes, two flank hexes and two rear hexes. Cavalry Cavalry units of have four frontal hexes and two rear hexes. Artillery (see 10) and infantry in a redoubt or in city: six frontal hexes. Commanders in chief (see 8) and line leaders (see 9): their orientation is unimportant, they are always regarded as frontal. 3- Stacking Stacking of the units in a hexagon is limit to three combat points of infantry, or two combat points of cavalry, or again a battery of artillery. Exception: an infantry counter (or of dragoons), and one only, whatever its value of combat, can stack with a battery. Other mixed stacks (cavalry-infantry or cavalry-artillery) are forbidden. Leaders are not taken into account for stacking. 4- Sequence of play Fontenoy 1745 plays in seven turns, each turn of the game including several phases. 0. Verification of command Each player verifies that the line leaders are in command. Leaders out of command are indicated by a suitable marker (8.3). 1. Initial artillery fire The French player fires his batteries. 2. Operations phases The players are going to proceed, blow by blow, in five operations segments (the number of corps of each army), during which each player activates a line leader. When all the leaders are activated, the operations phase is ended. The details of every segment are the following: - resolution of first player for this segment. Each player throws 1d6 (the allied player adds 1 to the die because he is on the offensive). The player who gets the best score decides if he plays immediately or if he lets the opposing player begin (one throws the dice again in case of equality). - activation of one line leader by Player A: - activation of one line leader by Player B. Activation of a line leader: when a player has the initiative: he can then activate units of one of his corps (see 5). When a line leader is activated, all the units of this corps could carry out movement then fight. Once the two players have each activated one line leader, one throws the die for each new operations segment. 3. Artillery Final Firing. The batteries of French artillery which didn't fire at the beginning of the turn may do so. 4. Command phase The commanders in chief can move. The counters of the line leaders are inverted. 5. Rally phase The markers Not commanded are withdrawn from line leaders whom are once again within the radius of a commander in chief. The disorganisation markers are withdrawn from units out of enemy zones of control, and routed units test in order to know if they maintain this status or not. The turn is then ended and the turn marker is advanced by one hour. 5- Activation of the corps A line leader and the corps that he commands could be activated when the cuurent player with the initiative, during the operations segment. The activation of a line leader and of his corps is indivisible. When a player has the initiative in a operations segment (that is to say that it is his turn to activate a corps), he designates one of his line leaders, who was not yet active, and reverses the counter. The corps of this leader can then act. The action of a corps are twofold: movement then combat. During this segment, all the units of corps could move. Then they could engage in combat with adjacent hostile units. The different corps of each army (each one being identified by a national symbol of different color) is the following: French army House of the King (red) Right wing, infantry and dragoons (blue) Left wing, infantry (yellow) Second line, infantry, cavalry and reinforcements (orange) Reserve of cavalry (green) Allied army Infantry anglo hanovrienne (red) Dutch infantry (orange) Cavalry anglo hanovrienne (blue) Dutch cavalry (brown) Austrian cavalry (green). A corps could not be activated more than once per turn and an unit cannot move and attack more than once per turn. When a player has the initiative, he has to designate a line leader and activate him, even though no unit of this corps acts. The corps cannot be activated thereafter in the same turn. He is therefore prohibited to pass his turn voluntarily. 6- Zone of control (diagram 2) All the units exercise a Zone of control (ZoC) into their frontal hex, that affects the opposing adjacent units placed on these hex. An infantry unit in a redoubt does exercise a ZoC upon all the adjacent hexes. Exceptions: the leaders and the artillery don't have ZoC. 6.1- Properties of the ZoC A ZoC possesses the following properties: - an unit which enters a hostile ZoC ceases movement; - an unit which retreats into a hostile ZoC following a combat result could become disorganized and undergo one step loss (see 11.6); - it is prohibited to go directly from one hostile ZoC to another hostile ZoC. - leave a hostile ZoC costs + 1 movement point (exception: exit in retreat, see 7.3). - the presence of a friendly unit in a hostile ZoC nullifies this last concerning the limitations of command and of movement of leaders. A ZoC does not extend into the following terrains: into a hex of forest or of city, or beyond a stream or a river hexside. 6.2- Properties of the flanks and rears Flank hex: the flank hexagons of hostile units don't forbid movement. An unit which retreats into a hostile flank hex following a combat result could undergo disorganisation (see 11.6) Rear hex: the hexagons to the rear of a hostile unit don't forbid the movement. An unit which retreats into a hex to the rear of a hostile unit following a combat result incurs no penalty. 7- Movement (diagram 2) 7.1- Generalities An unit or a line leader of an active corps can move all or part of its movement points. The entry into a hex costs a certain number of movement points (PM) to the unit that moves. The costs of terrain is specified on the Terrain Table (top of the map). The movement points are not cumulative from one turn to the next. The movement of an unit or of a pile of units must be finished before passing to another unit of same corps. The movement is solely through the two frontal hex, without changing the orientation of the unit, same for the cavalry. The rules of stacking must be respected during the movement of units. The artillery units (see 10) do not move. The superior commanders follow their own rules of movement (see 7.4). 7.2- Change in facing An unit could change its facing, expending 1 PM per apex of hexagon. Refacing in a hostile ZoC costs 2 PM per apex of hex, with a facing test : the player throws 1d6 and adds the morale of the unit. If the result is inferior or equal to 5 the unit is disorganized. It refaces in all events. 7.3- Leaving hostile ZoC An unit could leave a hex situated in a hostile ZoC in two manners: - either by advancing to one of its frontal hexes if this hex is not occupied by a hostile unit nor in hostile ZoC. Cost: + 1 PM. - or by retreating one hex (in respecting the retreat rules, see 11.6) toward one of its rear hexes (but not a flank hex), while maintaining its facing. Cost: half of its PM (plus the cost of destination terrain ). The unit will be able to to reface after retreating. 7.4- Movement of the commanders in chief The commanders in chief move an unlimited number of hexagons during its command phase, but they don't have the right to enter a hostile front or flank hex unoccupied by a friendly unit. 8- Commanders in chief (diagram 3) Each camp has two commanders in chief: the duke of Cumberland and the prince of Waldeck for the Allies, the marshal of Saxony and King Louis XV for the French 8.1- Generalities Each commander in chief has a command rating (expressed in number of hexagons, whatever the nature of terrain) which represents his capacity of control over the line leaders. Each one commands the following leaders: - Louis XV : solely the house of King and the reserve of cavalry: - the marshal of Saxony: all the French army except the house of King: - the duke of Cumberland: only the Anglo-hanovriens and the Austrian cavalry; - the Waldeck prince: only the Dutch corps of infantry and of cavalry. 8.2- Command (diagram 4) In order to be controled, a line leader must be in command range of his commander in chief. This radius is traced, to the line leader, by a way of a line of hexes (nature of terrain irrelevant, but 10 hex maximum distance) which must not pass through enemy front or flank hexes unoccupied by friendly units. 8.3- Corps out of commanded A line leader that is not commanded at the beginning of turn of game receives a 'Out of Command' marker. This leader could still be designated in order to be activated by the player during the operation phases but the units won't act unless the leader passed a activation test. Activation Test : a line leader out of command is active if the player throws, on 1d6, less or equal to the leader activation value. In case of success: all the units of corps could act normally. In case of failure, no unit could act but the player is nevertheless considered as having activated this corps. 8.4- Death of the commanders in chief A commander in chief is eliminated (for the game at least) when the units with whom he stacked is eliminated entirely by combat or by retreat. If he was Louis XV or marshal of Saxony, the French lose the game. If he is the duke of Cumberland, the French win the game. If he was the Waldeck prince, the Dutch units are all considered as disorganized, and cannot be activated anymore. 9- Line leaders (diagrams 3 and 4) The line leaders represent the different commanders of corps of each army. They each command one or several brigades. A line leader is activated according to the rules of corps activation (see 5) and of command (see 8). A leader could not be activated more than once per turn. One inverts the counter in order to denote activation. A line leader moves as a cavalry unit. 9.1- Command of the units (diagram 4) At the moment of his activation, a line leader could carry out actions for all the units of his corps which are in command at the time of activation. In order to be commanded, an unit must be in the command range of line leader according to the same principles as rule 8.2. An unit can also be commanded if it is a part of a line of battle which is itself commanded (see 9.3). The examination of command of the unit is made at the beginning of the activation of the corps, before all movement; this means that an out of command unit remains so during all the phase even though the line leader moves within command range. In order to command, a line leader doesn't need to be stacked with some units of his corps. 9.2- Out of command units An out of command unit at the time of activation of a corps could not attack. It can nevertheless change its facing and move, but with half of its movement points. It cannot move further away from its line leader. An out of command unit which itself disengages from the ZoC of a hostile unit uses all of its movement points. Exception: the arquebusiers of Grassin (light troops) are always considered to be in command. 9.3- Lines of battle An unit out of command range of its line leader could be in command if it is adjacent to an unit of the same corps placed on a flank hex (see diagram 4) and that, in the line formed in this way at least one unit of corps is in command range of the line leader. Cavalry units can merely be adjacent in order to form a line of battle of any shape. 9.4- Death of the line leaders A line leader is eliminated when the units with which he is stacked is completely eliminated by combat or retreat. The line leader is then immediately replaced by an aide de camp (identified by a rod of replacement), that the player is free to place as he wishes it. An aide de camp itself is replaced in the same way. 10- Artillery The units of French artillery are the only elements of this weaponry represented in the game (the organic artillery battalions were incorporated into other units) The artillery cannot move during the game. It ignores the rules of command and of initiative and acts independently. 10.1- Artillery Fire The units of French artillery could fire twice per turn. In the first place, they could fire, either at the beginning of turn, or at the end. All batteries that fire at the beginning of the turn receive an initial Shot marker. In second place, each unit of artillery could fire, during each turn, one time during one any operations segment . This firing is mandatory as soon as a hostile unit becomes adjacent, except if another hostile unit was already adjacent. This obligation apart, the French player could fire his artillery at any moment (after a firing test if applicable, see lower). This fire could be declared anytime: during one opposing movement, during one segment of the French turn, etc. The batteries could fire consecutively. All batteries having executed its shooting during an operation phase will have been reversed, to an inactive side (double white rod, without gunner). Firing Test: (used only when the French player wishes to fire a battery during an one opposing operations segment). The French player designates the battery which attempts a shot and throws 1 d6. On a result of 1 or 2, the battery doesn't fire and cannot attempt to fire during this opposong operations segment. The firing test is always successful if the target is or becomes adjacent, and when the French player acts during one of his operations segments. 10.2- Procedure Range and field of firing The range maximum of the artillery is three hex. The artillery possesses its own table of combat (see p. 30), which depends on the range. The results are similar to those of combat. The artillery could fire from in all directions. Line of sight A battery of artillery must have a line of sight to its target in order to fire. The following elements block the line of sight: - any unit between the battery and its target; - any of hex obstacle (city, forest, elevation) sides excluded, between the battery and its target. The line of sight of a battery situated on an elevated position (battery situated to the west of the Escaut only) is blocked only if the obstacle is adjacent to the target. A battery can always fire on an adjacent target. 10.3- Destruction of the artillery An artillery unit is immediately destroyed if the infantry unit (or dragoons) stacked with it are destroyed or must retreat. An artillery unit not grouped with infantry (or dragoons) is automatically destroyed by any attack. 11- Combat (diagram 5) The units of an active corps can attack opposing adjacent units situated in their ZoC. The attack is never obligatory. The active player in the activation phase is called the attacker, his adversary is called the defender. 11.1- Restrictions of engagement An unit could not attack more than once per turn, when its corps is active. An unit may engage several hostile units if these are all in his ZoC and are adjacent one to the other. In this case it engages them at the same time and they combine their combat factors for defense. In the same way several friendly adjacent units could attack the same hostile unit, adding their combat factors. On the other hand, several friendly units could not attack several opposing units in one battle; in this case, the attacks must be resolved separately. An unit can be attacked several times per turn but only once per operations segment (that is to say that an unit can be attacked once for every opposing active corps). A cavalry unit could not attack an enemy unit situated in impassable terrain (to it). 11.2- Cavalry charges The cavalry units have the possibility of charging, that yields a bonus (see 11.4). In order to implement a charge, an cavalry unit must be capable of traveling through at least two hex without changing facing before entering into contact with an enemy unit, and this in clear terrain solely. The attacked unit must also be in clear terrain. 11.3- Combat Procedure One calculates the ratio of the sum of the combat factors of the attacker and the defender. This ratio of strength is always rounded to the advantage of defender. The different modifiers (see 11.4) are applied and the attacker throws 1 d6. One consults the Combat Table (p. 30) and one gets, adjusted for the terrain occupied by the defender and the difference in morale, the combat result. This result is applied immediately before passing to the following combat. The effects of terrain and morale are integrated in the combat table. Terrain: when several units are attacked simultaneously, one applies the best defensive terrain for the resolution of combat. Morale: one takes the difference between the morale of the attacker and the defender. When some units of different morale participate in a combat (in attack or in defense), one uses the worst morale of the involved units. 11.4- Combat modifiers The combat modifiers are the following: Flank and rear: an infantry unit attacked on its flank accords+ 1 column to the right on the table (to the benefit of the attacker). An unit attacked against its rear accords + 2 columns to the right to the attacker. For multiple attacks, one always takes into account the most unfavorable orientation to the defender. Routed units: an attack against a routed unit benefits from a shift of+ 2 columns toward the right on the table. Cavalry charges: a cavalry charge gets the benefit of a shift of+ 1 column toward the right. Cavalry attacking a city or a redoubt: cavalry which attacks a hostile unit situated in a built up area are subject to a 1 column shift against (that is to say + 1 column on the left). All the modifiers are cumulative. 11.5- Combat Results The possible combat results are the following. 1 or 2: number of combat points eliminated from the involved units. The player is free to distribute the losses from the units at will. D: disorganisation of the units. All the involved units are disorganized. R or R2: retreat of one or two hex for all the involved units (see 11.6). * : if the concerned unit is cavalry disorganized by a previous combat, it is eliminated. E: elimination of the unit. The results are applied in the following order: losses (or possible elimination of the disorganized cavalry already), disorganisation then retreat. 11.6- Retreat of the units Retreat after combat is undertaken, as far as possible, in the order of the following priorities: toward terrain in which the unit could enter, out of hostile ZoC or hostile flank hex and free of friendly units which would break the rules of stacking. The unit which retreats maintains its initial facing. An unit for which retreat impossible due to the presence of enemy unit (s) in the adjacent hexes or of impassable terrain, is eliminated. An unit obliged to retreat into a hostile ZoC could undergo a step loss and/ or a disorganisation. The player possessing the unit throws 1 d6 and adds the morale of his unit. Retreat into hostile ZoC: 1 to 3= 1D; 4= 1; 5= D; 6 and+= no effect. An unit obliged to retreat into a hex that is a hostile flank could undergo a disorganisation. The player throws 1 d6 and adds the morale of the unit. Retreat across hostile flank: 1 to 4= D; 5 and+= no effect. An unit that retreats into a hex containing a friendly unit with which it cannot stack, displaces this one out of way, which then undergoes retreat, so that the hex becomes vacant. The displaced unit is automatically disorganized. This new retreat can very well entail some other retreats in succession. The normal rules of retreat apply fully, in addition to the automatic disorganisation. The player is free to eliminate an unit, by not retreating it, rather than execute supplementary retreats. 11.7- Advance after combat In the case of a retreat or of an elimination, one of the victorious units, in attack or in defense, could enter the vacant hex. The advance is limited to only this hex even though the retreat is of two hex. The option of advancing or not into a vacant hex is free but is made immediately and before all other action. 12- Disorganisation and rout 12.1- disorganisation An unit that incurred a result of disorganisation following a combat or a retreat into a hostile ZoC receives a disorganisation marker. Being disorganized doesn't affect the unit. On the other hand, a disorganized unit that underwent a new result of disorganisation risks routing (see test of rout, 12.2) The disorganisation markers are removed at the end of the turn. A disorganized unit cannot its marker if it is in a hostile ZoC. 12.2- Rout An unit that incurred a second result of disorganisation, whatever the reason, whereas it is disorganized already, risks incurring a rout. It executes a test of rout. Test of rout: the player throws 1 d6 and adds the value of morale of the unit: - lower or equal result to 5: the unit departs immediately in rout. The disorganisation marker is reversed then in order to appear on its Rout side. superior result to 5: the unit loses a combat point and remains disorganized. Attention: a cavalary unit already disorganised could be directly eliminated (see combat p. 30) whatever its strength, following a combat if it incurred the result. 12.3- Effects of rout A routed unit cannot engage in combat. It doesn't exercise a ZoC. All movement other than that imposed (see below) is forbidden. An unit which routs immediately retreats toward the friendly side of map (west for the French, east for the Anglo-Hanovrien and south for the Dutch) by the shortest path, in following the rules of retreat after combat. Exception: a routed unit could cross friendly units without taking into account limits of stacking. The units thus crossed are disorganized by this fact. If they were it already, they undergo a test of rout (12.2) then. An unit that routs displaces three hexagons, whatever the type of terrain crossed (impassable terrain remains forbidden) in changing its facing consequently. In case of overstacking in the third hex of rout, the unit continues its movement until finding a free hex. A routed unit that could not retreat three hexes is eliminated. 12.4- Rally test At the rally phase, the routed units of each camp execute a Rally test. This test is mandatory. Each player throws 1 d6 for each one of his routed units and adds the following modifiers: + 1. 2 or 3 according to the morale of the unit. + 1 if a commander in chief or a line leader is adjacent to the unit. + 2 if a commander in chief stacked with the unit. If the modified result is superior or equal to 7, the unit is rallied, the Rout marker removed. If the unit fails its Rally test, it immediately routs all over again three hexagons, according to rule (see 12.3). An unit situated in a hostile ZoC doesn't have right to the rally test and must continue its rout. 13- Victory Conditions In order to gain victory, the allied player must control the village of Fontenoy, which has all the French equipment and two bridges crossing the Escaut, in order to cut the retreat of the French troops. The capture of Fontenoy and of one bridge is a marginal victory. The death or the capture of King or of marshal of Saxony (see 8.4) is a sufficient condition for the French defeat, though not being the pursued objective. The death of Cumberland or the inability of allied player to fill his conditions of geographical victory yields victory to the French player. Test and clarification: Yves Dufrenois and Jacki Camus for the preliminary tests, Philippe Bonnefoy and Laurent Mariette for finalisation. All our thanks to the institute of the House of Bourbon and to the association of the friends of the House of France for their welcome. Dominique Sanches provided us an order of battle of a rare precision, that he is also thanked.